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This is where we come to delve into the biblical text. Theology is not our foremost thought, but we realize it is something that will be dealt with in nearly every conversation. Feel free to use the original languages to make your point (meaning Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic). This is an exegetical discussion area, so please limit topics to purely biblical ones.

This is not the section for debates between theists and atheists. While a theistic viewpoint is not required for discussion in this area, discussion does presuppose a respect for the integrity of the Biblical text (or the willingness to accept such a presupposition for discussion purposes) and a respect for the integrity of the faith of others and a lack of an agenda to undermine the faith of others.

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Revelation

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  • Revelation 14:14

    Text: (NA27):
    Καὶ εἶδον, καὶ ἰδοὺ νεφέλη λευκή, καὶ ἐπὶ τὴν νεφέλην καθήμενον ὅμοιον υἱὸν ἀνθρώπου, ἔχων ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς αὐτοῦ στέφανον χρυσοῦν καὶ ἐν τῇ χειρὶ αὐτοῦ δρέπανον ὀξύ.

    Transliteration (Accordance):
    Kai eidon, kai idou nephelē leukē, kai epi tēn nephelēn kathēmenon homoion huion anthrōpou, echōn epi tēs kephalēs autou stephanon chrysoun kai en tȩ̄ cheiri autou drepanon oxy.

    Translation (NRSV):
    Then I looked, and there was a white cloud, and seated on the cloud was one like the Son of Man, with a golden crown on his head, and a sharp sickle in his hand!

    Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
    εἶδον, καὶ ἰδοὺ : I looked, and behold = Hebrew meaning "I had a vision of".
    νεφέλη : cloud.
    λευκός : white.
    καθήμενον : seated participle of κάθημαι sit accusative after εἶδον.
    ὅμοιος : with dative like something.
    υἱὸν ἀνθρώπου : son of man = "Hebrew"* genitive a human being.
    στέφανος : crown.
    χρυσοῦς, ῆ, οῦν : of gold.
    δρέπανον : sickle.
    ὀξύ : sharp
    *BG § 40 The "Hebrew" genitive. Of the types of genitive commonly listed by grammarians, the one which approaches most closely the "general" genitive is the "attributive" or "qualitative" one, also called the "Hebrew" genitive, inasmuch as its scope and use in Biblical Greek is extended, owing to Semitic influence, to many expressions in which the Greeks used not a genitive but an adjective. ...

    Comment


    • Revelation 14:15

      Text: (NA27):
      καὶ ἄλλος ἄγγελος ἐξῆλθεν ἐκ τοῦ ναοῦ κράζων ἐν φωνῇ μεγάλῃ τῷ καθημένῳ ἐπὶ τῆς νεφέλης· πέμψον τὸ δρέπανόν σου καὶ θέρισον, ὅτι ἦλθεν ἡ ὥρα θερίσαι, ὅτι ἐξηράνθη ὁ θερισμὸς τῆς γῆς.

      Transliteration (Accordance):
      kai allos aggelos exēlthen ek tou naou krazōn en phōnȩ̄ megalȩ̄ tō̧ kathēmenō̧ epi tēs nephelēs; pempson to drepanon sou kai therison, hoti ēlthen hē hōra therisai, hoti exēranthē ho therismos tēs gēs.

      Translation (NRSV):
      Another angel came out of the temple, calling with a loud voice to the one who sat on the cloud, “Use your sickle and reap, for the hour to reap has come, because the harvest of the earth is fully ripe.”

      Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
      ἄλλος : pertaining to that which is other than some other entity other.
      ναός : heavenly sanctuary.
      κράζων : participle of κράζω call out, cry.
      πέμψον : aorist imperative of πέμπω send.
      θέρισον : aorist imperative of θερίζω reap.
      θερίσαι : aorist infinitive of θερίζω reap.
      ἐξηράνθη : aorist passive of ξηραίνω dry (something) ; passive intransitive dry up, wither.
      θερισμός : harvest.

      Comment


      • Revelation 14:16

        Text: (NA27):
        καὶ ἔβαλεν ὁ καθήμενος ἐπὶ τῆς νεφέλης τὸ δρέπανον αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν καὶ ἐθερίσθη ἡ γῆ.

        Transliteration (Accordance):
        kai ebalen ho kathēmenos epi tēs nephelēs to drepanon autou epi tēn gēn kai etheristhē hē gē.

        Translation (NRSV):
        So the one who sat on the cloud swung his sickle over the earth, and the earth was reaped.

        Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
        ἔβαλεν : aorist of βάλλω to cause to move from one location to another through use of forceful motion, throw ; here swing.
        ἐθερίσθη : aorist passive of θερίζω reap.

        Comment


        • Revelation 14:17

          Text: (NA27):
          Καὶ ἄλλος ἄγγελος ἐξῆλθεν ἐκ τοῦ ναοῦ τοῦ ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ ἔχων καὶ αὐτὸς δρέπανον ὀξύ.

          Transliteration (Accordance):
          Kai allos aggelos exēlthen ek tou naou tou en tō̧ ouranō̧ echōn kai autos drepanon oxy.

          Translation (NRSV):
          Then another angel came out of the temple in heaven, and he too had a sharp sickle.

          Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
          ἐκ : for ἀπό out from.
          ὀξύς : sharp.

          Comment


          • Revelation 14:18

            Text: (NA27):
            καὶ ἄλλος ἄγγελος [ἐξῆλθεν] ἐκ τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου [ὁ] ἔχων ἐξουσίαν ἐπὶ τοῦ πυρός, καὶ ἐφώνησεν φωνῇ μεγάλῃ τῷ ἔχοντι τὸ δρέπανον τὸ ὀξὺ λέγων· πέμψον σου τὸ δρέπανον τὸ ὀξὺ καὶ τρύγησον τοὺς βότρυας τῆς ἀμπέλου τῆς γῆς, ὅτι ἤκμασαν αἱ σταφυλαὶ αὐτῆς.

            Transliteration (Accordance):
            kai allos aggelos [exēlthen] ek tou thysiastēriou [ho] echōn exousian epi tou pyros, kai ephōnēsen phōnȩ̄ megalȩ̄ tō̧ echonti to drepanon to oxy legōn; pempson sou to drepanon to oxy kai trygēson tous botryas tēs ampelou tēs gēs, hoti ēkmasan hai staphylai autēs.

            Translation (NRSV):
            Then another angel came out from the altar, the angel who has authority over fire, and he called with a loud voice to him who had the sharp sickle, “Use your sharp sickle and gather the clusters of the vine of the earth, for its grapes are ripe.”

            Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
            θυσιαστήριον : alter.
            ἐφώνησεν : aorist of φωνέω call.
            πέμψον : aorist imperative of πέμπω send.
            [b]τρύγησονp/b] : aorist imperative of τρυγάω harvest.
            βότρυς, -υος, ὁ : grape cluster.
            ἄμπελος : vine, sometimes with meaning of ἀμπελών vineyard.
            ἤκμασαν : aorist of ἀκμάζω be ripe, ripen.
            σταφυλή : bunch of grapes.

            Comment


            • Revelation 14:19

              Text: (NA27):
              καὶ ἔβαλεν ὁ ἄγγελος τὸ δρέπανον αὐτοῦ εἰς τὴν γῆν καὶ ἐτρύγησεν τὴν ἄμπελον τῆς γῆς καὶ ἔβαλεν εἰς τὴν ληνὸν τοῦ θυμοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ τὸν μέγαν.

              Transliteration (Accordance):
              kai ebalen ho aggelos to drepanon autou eis tēn gēn kai etrygēsen tēn ampelon tēs gēs kai ebalen eis tēn lēnon tou thymou tou theou ton megan.

              Translation (NRSV):
              So the angel swung his sickle over the earth and gathered the vintage of the earth, and he threw it into the great wine press of the wrath of God.

              Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
              ἔβαλεν : aorist of βάλλω to cause to move from one location to another through use of forceful motion, throw.
              ἐτρύγησεν : aorist of τρυγάω gather in ripe fruit; especially harvest grapes.
              ληνός : wine press.
              θυμός : a state of intense displeasure, anger, wrath, rage, indignation.
              τὸν μέγαν : the great (instead of feminine τὴν μεγάλην = example of lack of concord in vulgar usage.

              Comment


              • Revelation 14:20

                Text: (NA27):
                καὶ ἐπατήθη ἡ ληνὸς ἔξωθεν τῆς πόλεως καὶ ἐξῆλθεν αἷμα ἐκ τῆς ληνοῦ ἄχρι τῶν χαλινῶν τῶν ἵππων ἀπὸ σταδίων χιλίων ἑξακοσίων.

                Transliteration (Accordance):
                kai epatēthē hē lēnos exōthen tēs poleōs kai exēlthen haima ek tēs lēnou achri tōn chalinōn tōn hippōn apo stadiōn chiliōn hexakosiōn.

                Translation (NRSV):
                And the wine press was trodden outside the city, and blood flowed from the wine press, as high as a horse’s bridle, for a distance of about two hundred miles.

                Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                ἐπατήθη : aorist passive of πατέω tread.
                ἔξωθεν : (from) outside ; used as preposition with genitive.
                ἄχρι : with genitive as far as ; up to (the height of)
                χαλινός : bridle.
                ἵππος : horse.
                στάδιον plural -ια or -ιοι stade, measure of distance c. 600ft pr 200m.
                ἀπό : in Hellenistic Greek preceding the number expresses English distance away, Jn 11:18.
                χίλιοι = 1000.
                ἑξακόσιοι = 600 ; 1600 stades = in round figures 300 km or 200 miles.

                Comment


                • Revelation 15:1

                  Text: (NA27):
                  Καὶ εἶδον ἄλλο σημεῖον ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ μέγα καὶ θαυμαστόν, ἀγγέλους ἑπτὰ ἔχοντας πληγὰς ἑπτὰ τὰς ἐσχάτας, ὅτι ἐν αὐταῖς ἐτελέσθη ὁ θυμὸς τοῦ θεοῦ.

                  Transliteration (Accordance):
                  Kai eidon allo sēmeion en tō̧ ouranō̧ mega kai thaumaston, aggelous hepta echontas plēgas hepta tas eschatas, hoti en autais etelesthē ho thymos tou theou.

                  Translation (NRSV):
                  Then I saw another portent in heaven, great and amazing: seven angels with seven plagues, which are the last, for with them the wrath of God is ended.

                  Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                  θαυμαστός : marvelous.
                  ἔχοντας : participle of ἔχω to possess or contain, have, own.
                  πληγή : (< πλήσσω strike) a blow ; plague.
                  ἔσχατος : last.
                  ἐτελέσθη : aorist passive of τελέω end, complete ; proleptic aorist viewing the ultimate outcome as already achieved : is consummated/satisfied.
                  θυμός : wrath.

                  Comment


                  • Revelation 15:2

                    Text: (NA27):
                    Καὶ εἶδον ὡς θάλασσαν ὑαλίνην μεμιγμένην πυρὶ καὶ τοὺς νικῶντας ἐκ τοῦ θηρίου καὶ ἐκ τῆς εἰκόνος αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐκ τοῦ ἀριθμοῦ τοῦ ὀνόματος αὐτοῦ ἑστῶτας ἐπὶ τὴν θάλασσαν τὴν ὑαλίνην ἔχοντας κιθάρας τοῦ θεοῦ.

                    Transliteration (Accordance):
                    Kai eidon hōs thalassan hyalinēn memigmenēn pyri kai tous nikōntas ek tou thēriou kai ek tēs eikonos autou kai ek tou arithmou tou onomatos autou hestōtas epi tēn thalassan tēn hyalinēn echontas kitharas tou theou.

                    Translation (NRSV):
                    And I saw what appeared to be a sea of glass mixed with fire, and those who had conquered the beast and its image and the number of its name, standing beside the sea of glass with harps of God in their hands.

                    Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                    ὡς : (something) like.
                    ὑάλινος : of glass.
                    μεμιγμένην : perfect passive participle of μίγνυμι mix.
                    νικῶντας : victors, participle of νικάω conquer, verb ἐκ perhaps connoting emerge victor over.
                    θηρίον : beast.
                    εἰκών, -όνος, ἡ : image.
                    ἀριθμός : number, ἀριθμὸν τοῦ ὀνόματος αὐτοῦ 13:17 i.e. sum of the numbers corresponding to his name.
                    ἑστῶτας : standing, perfect (intransitive) participle of ἵστημι.
                    ἔχοντας : holding verse 1, participle of ἔχω.
                    κιθάρα : harp.

                    Comment


                    • Revelation 15:3

                      Text: (NA27):
                      καὶ ᾄδουσιν τὴν ᾠδὴν Μωϋσέως τοῦ δούλου τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τὴν ᾠδὴν τοῦ ἀρνίου λέγοντες· μεγάλα καὶ θαυμαστὰ τὰ ἔργα σου, κύριε ὁ θεὸς ὁ παντοκράτωρ· δίκαιαι καὶ ἀληθιναὶ αἱ ὁδοί σου, ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν ἐθνῶν·

                      Transliteration (Accordance):
                      kai a̧dousin tēn ō̧dēn Mōuseōs tou doulou tou theou kai tēn ō̧dēn tou arniou legontes; megala kai thaumasta ta erga sou, kyrie ho theos ho pantokratōr; dikaiai kai alēthinai hai hodoi sou, ho basileus tōn ethnōn;

                      Translation (NRSV):
                      And they sing the song of Moses, the servant of God, and the song of the Lamb: “Great and amazing are your deeds, Lord God the Almighty! Just and true are your ways, King of the nations!

                      Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                      καί : coordinate interrupting the participial construction.
                      ᾄδω : sing.
                      ᾠδή : song.
                      ἀρνίον : lamb.
                      κύριε ὁ θεός : vocative Lord God.
                      παντοκράτωρ, -ορος, ὁ : almighty : appositions to a noun in vocative require article.
                      ἀληθινός : true.
                      ἐθνῶν : nations [[variant αἰώνων ages]].

                      Comment


                      • Revelation 15:4

                        Text: (NA27):
                        τίς οὐ μὴ φοβηθῇ, κύριε, καὶ δοξάσει τὸ ὄνομά σου; ὅτι μόνος ὅσιος, ὅτι πάντα τὰ ἔθνη ἥξουσιν καὶ προσκυνήσουσιν ἐνώπιόν σου, ὅτι τὰ δικαιώματά σου ἐφανερώθησαν.

                        Transliteration (Accordance):
                        tis ou mē phobēthȩ̄, kyrie, kai doxasei to onoma sou? hoti monos hosios, hoti panta ta ethnē hēxousin kai proskynēsousin enōpion sou, hoti ta dikaiōmata sou ephanerōthēsan.

                        Translation (NRSV):
                        Lord, who will not fear and glorify your name? For you alone are holy. All nations will come and worship before you, for your judgments have been revealed.”

                        Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                        οὐ μή : with aorist subjunctive referring to the future, emphasis diminished in interrogative.
                        φοβηθῇ : aorist subjunctive deponent of φοβέομαι fear.
                        δοξάσει : future (for subjunctive) of δοξάζω glorify, praise.
                        ὅσιος : holy.
                        ἥξουσιν : will come, future ἥκω to have come 2:25.
                        προσκυνήσουσιν : future of προσκυνέω prostrate oneself, do obeisance, worship.
                        δικαίωμα : just deed.
                        ἐφανερώθησαν : aorist passive of φανερόω make clear, show, reveal.

                        Comment


                        • Revelation 15:5

                          Text: (NA27):
                          Καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα εἶδον, καὶ ἠνοίγη ὁ ναὸς τῆς σκηνῆς τοῦ μαρτυρίου ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ

                          Transliteration (Accordance):
                          Kai meta tauta eidon, kai ēnoigē ho naos tēs skēnēs tou martyriou en tō̧ ouranō̧

                          Translation (NRSV):
                          After this I looked, and the temple of the tent of witness in heaven was opened

                          Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                          ἠνοίγη : aorist passive of ἀνοίγω open.
                          ναός : sanctuary.
                          σκηνή : tabernacle/tent
                          μαρτύριον : testimony, σκηνὴ μαρτυρίου where God reveals his will.

                          Comment


                          • Revelation 15:6

                            Text: (NA27):
                            καὶ ἐξῆλθον οἱ ἑπτὰ ἄγγελοι [οἱ] ἔχοντες τὰς ἑπτὰ πληγὰς ἐκ τοῦ ναοῦ ἐνδεδυμένοι λίνον καθαρὸν λαμπρὸν καὶ περιεζωσμένοι περὶ τὰ στήθη ζώνας χρυσᾶς.

                            Transliteration (Accordance):
                            kai exēlthon hoi hepta aggeloi [hoi] echontes tas hepta plēgas ek tou naou endedymenoi linon katharon lampron kai periezōsmenoi peri ta stēthē zōnas chrysas.

                            Translation (NRSV):
                            and out of the temple came the seven angels with the seven plagues, robed in pure bright linen, with golden sashes across their chests.

                            Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                            πληγή : a sudden calamity that causes severe distress, blow in the sense ‘a blow of fate’, a plague.
                            ἐνδεδυμένοι : perfect middle participle of ἐνδύω (τινά) clothe (another) ; middle put on (oneself) wear.
                            λίνον : linen.
                            καθαρός : clean.
                            λαμπρός : gleaming white.
                            περιεζωσμένοι : perfect passive participle of περιζώννυμι (τι) gird oneself with (something).
                            στῆθος : breast, chest.
                            ζώνη : girdle
                            χρυσοῦς, -ῆ, -οῦν : of gold.

                            Comment

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