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Biblical Languages 301 Guidelines

This is where we come to delve into the biblical text. Theology is not our foremost thought, but we realize it is something that will be dealt with in nearly every conversation. Feel free to use the original languages to make your point (meaning Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic). This is an exegetical discussion area, so please limit topics to purely biblical ones.

This is not the section for debates between theists and atheists. While a theistic viewpoint is not required for discussion in this area, discussion does presuppose a respect for the integrity of the Biblical text (or the willingness to accept such a presupposition for discussion purposes) and a respect for the integrity of the faith of others and a lack of an agenda to undermine the faith of others.

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Revelation

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  • #16
    Revelation 1:15

    Text: (NA27):
    καὶ οἱ πόδες αὐτοῦ ὅμοιοι χαλκολιβάνῳ ὡς ἐν καμίνῳ πεπυρωμένης καὶ ἡ φωνὴ αὐτοῦ ὡς φωνὴ ὑδάτων πολλῶν,

    Transliteration (Accordance):
    kai hoi podes autou homoioi chalkolibanō̧ hōs en kaminō̧ pepyrōmenēs kai hē phōnē autou hōs phōnē hydatōn pollōn,

    Translation (NRSV):
    his feet were like burnished bronze, refined as in a furnace, and his voice was like the sound of many waters.

    Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
    χαλκολίβανον : bronze ; exact substance unidentified.
    κάμινος, -ου, ἡ : furnace.
    πεπυρωμένης : perfect participle passive feminine of πυρόω burn, refine ; πεπυρωμένης feminine and genitive, defies explanation as it stands, amendments are suggested but these have poor manuscript support.
    Last edited by John Reece; 03-09-2014, 08:05 PM.

    Comment


    • #17
      Revelation 1:16

      Text: (NA27):
      καὶ ἔχων ἐν τῇ δεξιᾷ χειρὶ αὐτοῦ ἀστέρας ἑπτὰ καὶ ἐκ τοῦ στόματος αὐτοῦ ῥομφαία δίστομος ὀξεῖα ἐκπορευομένη καὶ ἡ ὄψις αὐτοῦ ὡς ὁ ἥλιος φαίνει ἐν τῇ δυνάμει αὐτοῦ.

      Transliteration (Accordance):
      kai echōn en tȩ̄ dexia̧ cheiri autou asteras hepta kai ek tou stomatos autou rhomphaia distomos oxeia ekporeuomenē kai hē opsis autou hōs ho hēlios phainei en tȩ̄ dynamei autou.

      Translation (NRSV):
      In his right hand he held seven stars, and from his mouth came a sharp, two-edged sword, and his face was like the sun shining with full force.

      Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
      ἔχων : without grammatical subject, logically referring to υἱὸν ἀνθρώπου (verse 13).
      δεξιός : right, ἡ δεξιά. with or without χείρ (hand), right hand.
      ἀστήρ, -έρος, ὁ : star.
      ῥομφαία : sword.
      δίστομος : (δίς twice + στόμα mouth) masculine and feminine, neuter -ον two-edged.
      ὀξύς, ὀξεῖα, ὀξύ : sharp.
      ἐκπορευομένη : participle of ἐκπορεύομαι issue, come out.
      ὄψις : face.
      ἥλιος : sun.
      φαίνω : show ; intransitive shine.
      ἐν τῇ δυνάμει αὐτοῦ : with its (full) force.
      Last edited by John Reece; 03-09-2014, 08:03 PM.

      Comment


      • #18
        Revelation 1:17

        Text: (NA27):
        Καὶ ὅτε εἶδον αὐτόν, ἔπεσα πρὸς τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ ὡς νεκρός, καὶ ἔθηκεν τὴν δεξιὰν αὐτοῦ ἐπ᾿ ἐμὲ λέγων· μὴ φοβοῦ· ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ πρῶτος καὶ ὁ ἔσχατος

        Transliteration (Accordance):
        Kai hote eidon auton, epesa pros tous podas autou hōs nekros, kai ethēken tēn dexian autou ep’ eme legōn; mē phobou; egō eimi ho prōtos kai ho eschatosKai hote eidon auton, epesa pros tous podas autou hōs nekros,

        Translation (NRSV):
        When I saw him, I fell at his feet as though dead. But he placed his right hand on me, saying, “Do not be afraid; I am the first and the last,

        Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
        ἔπεσα : aorist of πίπτω fall.
        πίπτω πρὸς τοὺς πόδας τινός : fall at one's feet.
        ἔθηκεν : aorist of τίθημι put, lay, place.
        φοβοῦ : imperative of φοβέομαι fear, be afraid.
        ἔσχατος : last.
        Last edited by John Reece; 03-09-2014, 08:01 PM.

        Comment


        • #19
          Revelation 1:18

          Text: (NA27):
          καὶ ὁ ζῶν, καὶ ἐγενόμην νεκρὸς καὶ ἰδοὺ ζῶν εἰμι εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων καὶ ἔχω τὰς κλεῖς τοῦ θανάτου καὶ τοῦ ᾅδου.

          Transliteration (Accordance):
          kai ho zōn, kai egenomēn nekros kai idou zōn eimi eis tous aiōnas tōn aiōnōn kai echō tas kleis tou thanatou kai tou a̧hdou.

          Translation (TNIV):
          I am the Living One; I was dead, and now look, I am alive for ever and ever! And I hold the keys of death and Hades.

          Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
          ζῶν : participle of ζάω live.
          ἐγενόμην : aorist of γίνομαι.
          εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων : for ever and ever.
          κλείς, κλειδός, ἡ : (accusative plural classical κλεῖς, Hellenistic Greek κλεῖδας) key.
          ᾅδης : hades, underworld, ἡ κλεὶς τοῦ ᾅδου, here, the power of delivering from or consigning to the lower world.

          Comment


          • #20
            Revelation 1:19

            Text: (NA27):
            γράψον οὖν ἃ εἶδες καὶ ἃ εἰσὶν καὶ ἃ μέλλει γενέσθαι μετὰ ταῦτα.

            Transliteration (Accordance):
            grapson oun ha eides kai ha eisin kai ha mellei genesthai meta tauta.

            Translation (TNIV):
            Write, therefore, what you have seen: both what is now and what will take place later.

            Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
            γράψον : aorist imperative of γράφω write.
            μέλλει γενέσθαι : is to come about.

            Comment


            • #21
              Revelation 1:20

              Text: (NA27):
              τὸ μυστήριον τῶν ἑπτὰ ἀστέρων οὓς εἶδες ἐπὶ τῆς δεξιᾶς μου καὶ τὰς ἑπτὰ λυχνίας τὰς χρυσᾶς· οἱ ἑπτὰ ἀστέρες ἄγγελοι τῶν ἑπτὰ ἐκκλησιῶν εἰσιν καὶ αἱ λυχνίαι αἱ ἑπτὰ ἑπτὰ ἐκκλησίαι εἰσίν.

              Transliteration (Accordance):
              to mystērion tōn hepta asterōn hous eides epi tēs dexias mou kai tas hepta lychnias tas chrysas; hoi hepta asteres aggeloi tōn hepta ekklēsiōn eisin kai hai lychniai hai hepta hepta ekklēsiai eisin.

              Translation (TNIV):
              The mystery of the seven stars that you saw in my right hand and of the seven golden lampstands is this: The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches, and the seven lampstands are the seven churches.

              Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
              μυστήριον : mystery, hidden meaning ; accusative of respect, with regard to / as to the secret.
              ἀστήρ, έρος, ὁ : star.
              εἶδες : aorist 2nd person singular of ὁράω see.
              λυχνία : lampstand ; accusative instead of genitive (after μυστήριον) under influence of εἶδες.
              χρυσοῦς : made of gold ; accusative instead of genitive (after μυστήριον) under influence of εἶδες.
              ἄγγελος : explained in different ways, all of which from "guardian angels" to "messengers from the churches" are beset by difficulties. Probably the angels stand as symbols of the spirit and outlook characterizing each community.

              Comment


              • #22
                Revelation 2:1

                Text: (NA27):
                Τῷ ἀγγέλῳ τῆς ἐν Ἐφέσῳ ἐκκλησίας γράψον· Τάδε λέγει ὁ κρατῶν τοὺς ἑπτὰ ἀστέρας ἐν τῇ δεξιᾷ αὐτοῦ, ὁ περιπατῶν ἐν μέσῳ τῶν ἑπτὰ λυχνιῶν τῶν χρυσῶν·

                Transliteration (Accordance):
                Tō̧ aggelō̧ tēs en Ephesō̧ ekklēsias grapson; Tade legei ho kratōn tous hepta asteras en tȩ̄ dexia̧ autou, ho peripatōn en mesō̧ tōn hepta lychniōn tōn chrysōn;

                Translation (TNIV):
                “To the angel of the church in Ephesus write: These are the words of him who holds the seven stars in his right hand and walks among the seven golden lampstands.

                Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                γράψον : aorist imperative of γράφω write.
                τάδε : these things (classical referring to what follows) opposite ταῦτα (classical referring to what precedes).
                κρατῶν : participle of κρατέω hold, especially in one's power.
                ἀστήρ, -έρος, ὁ : star.
                δεξιός : right, ἡ δεξιά, with or without χείρ (hand), right hand.
                περιπατῶν : participle of περιπατέω go about, walk around.
                ἐν μέσῳ : among.
                λυχνία : lampstand.
                χρυσοῦς, (genitive -οῦ) -ῆ, -οῦν : made of gold.

                Comment


                • #23
                  Revelation 2:2

                  Text: (NA27):
                  οἶδα τὰ ἔργα σου καὶ τὸν κόπον καὶ τὴν ὑπομονήν σου καὶ ὅτι οὐ δύνῃ βαστάσαι κακούς, καὶ ἐπείρασας τοὺς λέγοντας ἑαυτοὺς ἀποστόλους καὶ οὐκ εἰσὶν καὶ εὗρες αὐτοὺς ψευδεῖς,

                  Transliteration (Accordance):
                  oida ta erga sou kai ton kopon kai tēn hypomonēn sou kai hoti ou dynȩ̄ bastasai kakous, kai epeirasas tous legontas heautous apostolous kai ouk eisin kai heures autous pseudeis,

                  Translation (TNIV):
                  I know your deeds, your hard work and your perseverance. I know that you cannot tolerate wicked people, that you have tested those who claim to be apostles but are not, and have found them false.

                  Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                  κόπος : labor, toil.
                  ὑπομονή : endurance, fortitude.
                  δύνῃ : 2nd singular of δύναμαι (= classical δύνασαι)
                  βαστάσαι : aorist infinitive of βαστάζω carry ; metonymy tolerate, endure.
                  κακός : evil, masculine plural evil men.
                  ἐπείρασας : aorist of πειράζω put to the test.
                  τοὺς λέγοντας ἑαυτοὺς ἀποστόλους καὶ οὐκ εἰσὶν : participial construction lapsing into indicative with καί co-ordinate.
                  εὗρες : aorist of εὑρίσκω find.
                  ψευδής : false.

                  Comment


                  • #24
                    Revelation 2:3

                    Text: (NA27):
                    καὶ ὑπομονὴν ἔχεις καὶ ἐβάστασας διὰ τὸ ὄνομά μου καὶ οὐ κεκοπίακες.

                    Transliteration (Accordance):
                    kai hypomonēn echeis kai ebastasas dia to onoma mou kai ou kekopiakes.

                    Translation (TNIV):
                    You have persevered and have endured hardships for my name, and have not grown weary.

                    Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                    ἐβάστασας : aorist of βαστάζω sustain a burdon, carry, bear.
                    κεκοπίακες (for κας: ending assimilated to aorist) : perfect of κοπιάω become weary from hard work.

                    Comment


                    • #25
                      Revelation 2:4

                      Text: (NA27):
                      ἀλλὰ ἔχω κατὰ σοῦ ὅτι τὴν ἀγάπην σου τὴν πρώτην ἀφῆκες

                      Transliteration (Accordance):
                      alla echō kata sou hoti tēn agapēn sou tēn prōtēn aphēkes

                      Translation (TNIV):
                      Yet I hold this against you: You have forsaken the love you had at first.

                      Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                      τὴν ἀγάπην σου τὴν πρώτην : i.e. the (brotherly) love you had at first.
                      ἀφῆκες : 2nd singular (for -ας) ἀφίημι leave.

                      Comment


                      • #26
                        Revelation 2:5

                        Text: (NA27):
                        μνημόνευε οὖν πόθεν πέπτωκας καὶ μετανόησον καὶ τὰ πρῶτα ἔργα ποίησον· εἰ δὲ μή, ἔρχομαί σοι καὶ κινήσω τὴν λυχνίαν σου ἐκ τοῦ τόπου αὐτῆς, ἐὰν μὴ μετανοήσῃς.

                        Transliteration (Accordance):
                        mnēmoneue oun pothen peptōkas kai metanoēson kai ta prōta erga poiēson; ei de mē, erchomai soi kai kinēsō tēn lychnian sou ek tou topou autēs, ean mē metanoēsȩ̄s.

                        Translation (NRSV):
                        Remember then from what you have fallen; repent, and do the works you did at first. If not, I will come to you and remove your lampstand from its place, unless you repent.

                        Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                        μνημόνευε : imperative of μνημονεύω remember.
                        πόθεν : whence, from where, implying "how far".
                        πέπτωκας : perfect of πίπτω fall.
                        μετανόησον : aorist imperative of μετανοέω repent.
                        ποίησον : aorist imperative of ποιέω do.
                        εἰ δὲ μή : if not, otherwise.
                        ἔρχομαι : present with future sense.
                        σοι : to you = ? πρός σε or ? dative of disadvantage.
                        κινήσω : move ; remove, take away.
                        λυχνία : lampstand.
                        μετανοήσῃς : aorist subjunctive.

                        Comment


                        • #27
                          Revelation 2:6

                          Text: (NA27):
                          ἀλλὰ τοῦτο ἔχεις, ὅτι μισεῖς τὰ ἔργα τῶν Νικολαϊτῶν ἃ κἀγὼ μισῶ.

                          Transliteration (Accordance):
                          alla touto echeis, hoti miseis ta erga tōn Nikolaitōn ha kagō misō.

                          Translation (NRSV):
                          Yet this is to your credit: you hate the works of the Nicolaitans, which I also hate.

                          Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                          τοῦτο : explained by following ὅτι.
                          ἔχεις : sc. "in your favor".
                          μισέω : hate
                          κἀγὼ = καὶ ἐγώ I also.

                          Comment


                          • #28
                            Revelation 2:7

                            Text: (NA27):
                            Ὁ ἔχων οὖς ἀκουσάτω τί τὸ πνεῦμα λέγει ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις. Τῷ νικῶντι δώσω αὐτῷ φαγεῖν ἐκ τοῦ ξύλου τῆς ζωῆς, ὅ ἐστιν ἐν τῷ παραδείσῳ τοῦ θεοῦ.

                            Transliteration (Accordance):
                            Ho echōn ous akousatō ti to pneuma legei tais ekklēsiais. Tō̧ nikōnti dōsō autō̧ phagein ek tou xylou tēs zōēs, ho estin en tō̧ paradeisō̧ tou theou.

                            Translation (NRSV):
                            Let anyone who has an ear listen to what the Spirit is saying to the churches. To everyone who conquers, I will give permission to eat from the tree of life that is in the paradise of God.

                            Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                            οὖς, ὠτός, τό : ear.
                            ἀκουσάτω : aorist imperative of ἀκούω hear.
                            τί : as indirect interrogative.
                            νικῶντι : participle of νικάω conquer, be victorious ; in Apocalypse ὁ νικῶν has everywhere the sense of one who, in the power of Christ, has overcome sin and endured martyrdom ; αὐτῷ superfluous.
                            δώσω : future of δίδωμι grant, allow.
                            φαγεῖν : aorist infinitive of ἐσθίω: δίδωμί τινι φαγεῖν ἐκ Mt 14:16.
                            ξύλον : wood, tree.
                            παράδεισος : word of Persian origin, garden ; here, home of the blessed, heaven.

                            Comment


                            • #29
                              Revelation 2:8

                              Text: (NA27):
                              Καὶ τῷ ἀγγέλῳ τῆς ἐν Σμύρνῃ ἐκκλησίας γράψον· Τάδε λέγει ὁ πρῶτος καὶ ὁ ἔσχατος, ὃς ἐγένετο νεκρὸς καὶ ἔζησεν·

                              Transliteration (Accordance):
                              Kai tō̧ aggelō̧ tēs en Smyrnȩ̄ ekklēsias grapson; Tade legei ho prōtos kai ho eschatos, hos egeneto nekros kai ezēsen;

                              Translation (NRSV):
                              “And to the angel of the church in Smyrna write: These are the words of the first and the last, who was dead and came to life:

                              Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                              γράψον : aorist imperative of γράφω write.
                              τάδε : these things.
                              ἔσχατος : last.
                              ἔζησεν : came to life, aorist (inceptive) of ζάω live.

                              Comment


                              • #30
                                Revelation 2:9

                                Text: (NA27):
                                οἶδά σου τὴν θλῖψιν καὶ τὴν πτωχείαν, ἀλλὰ πλούσιος εἶ, καὶ τὴν βλασφημίαν ἐκ τῶν λεγόντων Ἰουδαίους εἶναι ἑαυτοὺς καὶ οὐκ εἰσὶν ἀλλὰ συναγωγὴ τοῦ σατανᾶ.

                                Transliteration (Accordance):
                                oida sou tēn thlipsin kai tēn ptōcheian, alla plousios ei, kai tēn blasphēmian ek tōn legontōn Ioudaious einai heautous kai ouk eisin alla synagōgē tou satana.

                                Translation (NRSV):
                                I know your affliction and your poverty, even though you are rich. I know the slander on the part of those who say that they are Jews and are not, but are a synagogue of Satan.

                                Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                                θλῖψις : distress, affliction.
                                πτωχεία : poverty, destitution.
                                πλούσιος : rich.
                                βλασφημία : slander.
                                ἐκ : on the part of.
                                τῶν λεγόντων Ἰουδαίους εἶναι ἑαυτοὺς καὶ οὐκ εἰσὶν : participial construction lapsing into indicative with καί coordinate.
                                συναγωγή : synagogue ; congregation.

                                Comment

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