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Biblical Languages 301 Guidelines

This is where we come to delve into the biblical text. Theology is not our foremost thought, but we realize it is something that will be dealt with in nearly every conversation. Feel free to use the original languages to make your point (meaning Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic). This is an exegetical discussion area, so please limit topics to purely biblical ones.

This is not the section for debates between theists and atheists. While a theistic viewpoint is not required for discussion in this area, discussion does presuppose a respect for the integrity of the Biblical text (or the willingness to accept such a presupposition for discussion purposes) and a respect for the integrity of the faith of others and a lack of an agenda to undermine the faith of others.

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  • Revelation 9:8

    Text: (NA27):
    καὶ εἶχον τρίχας ὡς τρίχας γυναικῶν, καὶ οἱ ὀδόντες αὐτῶν ὡς λεόντων ἦσαν

    Transliteration (Accordance):
    kai eichon trichas hōs trichas gynaikōn, kai hoi odontes autōn hōs leontōn ēsan

    Translation (NRSV):
    their hair like women’s hair, and their teeth like lions’ teeth

    Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
    ἔχω : have ; imperfect εἶχον had.
    θρίξ, τριχός, ἡ : hair.
    ὀδούς, ὀδόντος, ὁ : tooth.
    λέων, οντος, ὁ : lion.
    Last edited by John Reece; 05-21-2015, 10:34 AM.

    Comment


    • Revelation 9:9

      Text: (NA27):
      καὶ εἶχον θώρακας ὡς θώρακας σιδηροῦς, καὶ ἡ φωνὴ τῶν πτερύγων αὐτῶν ὡς φωνὴ ἁρμάτων ἵππων πολλῶν τρεχόντων εἰς πόλεμον

      Transliteration (Accordance):
      kai eichon thōrakas hōs thōrakas sidērous, kai hē phōnē tōn pterygōn autōn hōs phōnē harmatōn hippōn pollōn trechontōn eis polemon

      Translation (NRSV):
      they had scales like iron breastplates, and the noise of their wings was like the noise of many chariots with horses rushing into battle.

      Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
      θώραξ, -ακος, ὁ : breast-plate.
      σιδηροῦς, -ᾶ, -οῦν : of iron.
      φωνή : sound.
      πτέρυξ, -υγος, ἡ : wing.
      ἅρμα : chariot.
      τρεχόντων : participle of τρέχω run, rush.

      Comment


      • Revelation 9:10

        Text: (NA27):
        καὶ ἔχουσιν οὐρὰς ὁμοίας σκορπίοις καὶ κέντρα, καὶ ἐν ταῖς οὐραῖς αὐτῶν ἡ ἐξουσία αὐτῶν ἀδικῆσαι τοὺς ἀνθρώπους μῆνας πέντε

        Transliteration (Accordance):
        kai echousin ouras homoias skorpiois kai kentra, kai en tais ourais autōn hē exousia autōn adikēsai tous anthrōpous mēnas pente

        Translation (NRSV):
        They have tails like scorpions, with stingers, and in their tails is their power to harm people for five months.

        Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
        οὐρά : tail.
        ὅμοιος : like.
        σκορπίος : scorpion.
        κέντρον : sting.
        ἀδικῆσαι : aorist infinitive of ἀδικέω injure, harm.
        μήν, μηνός, ὁ : month.
        πέντε = 5.

        Comment


        • Revelation 9:11

          Text: (NA27):
          ἔχουσιν ἐπ᾿ αὐτῶν βασιλέα τὸν ἄγγελον τῆς ἀβύσσου, ὄνομα αὐτῷ Ἑβραϊστὶ Ἀβαδδών, καὶ ἐν τῇ Ἑλληνικῇ ὄνομα ἔχει Ἀπολλύων.

          Transliteration (Accordance):
          echousin epí autōn basilea ton aggelon tēs abyssou, onoma autō̧ Hebraisti Abaddōn, kai en tȩ̄ Hellēnikȩ̄ onoma echei Apollyōn.

          Translation (NRSV):
          They have as king over them the angel of the bottomless pit; his name in Hebrew is Abaddon, and in Greek he is called Apollyon.

          Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
          ἐπ᾿ αὐτῶν : over them.
          βασιλέα : predicate as king.
          ἄβυσσος, -ου, ἡ : abyss, referring to Sheol.
          ὄνομα αὐτῷ : "the name to him is", his name is.
          Ἑβραϊστί : in Hebrew/Aramaic.
          Ἑλληνικῇ : (sc. διαλεκτᾠ) Greek.
          Ἀπολλύων : Destroyer, participle of ἀπόλλυμι destroy.

          Comment


          • Revelation 9:12

            Text: (NA27):
            Ἡ οὐαὶ ἡ μία ἀπῆλθεν∑ ἰδοὺ ἔρχεται ἔτι δύο οὐαὶ μετὰ ταῦτα.

            Transliteration (Accordance):
            hĒ ouai hē mia apēlthen; idou erchetai eti dyo ouai meta tauta.

            Translation (NRSV):
            The first Woe is past: behold, there come yet two Woes hereafter.

            Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
            οὐαί : alas for! woe to! ἡ οὐαί the woe
            ἡ μία : for πρώτη, cardinal number for ordinal number, encouraged by Hebraic idiom.
            ἀπῆλθεν : has passed.

            Comment


            • Revelation 9:13

              Text: (NA27):
              Καὶ ὁ ἕκτος ἄγγελος ἐσάλπισεν∑ καὶ ἤκουσα φωνὴν μίαν ἐκ τῶν [τεσσάρων] κεράτων τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου τοῦ χρυσοῦ τοῦ ἐνώπιον τοῦ θεοῦ

              Transliteration (Accordance):
              Kai ho hektos aggelos esalpisen; kai ēkousa phōnēn mian ek tōn [tessarōn] keratōn tou thysiastēriou tou chrysou tou enōpion tou theou,

              Translation (NRSV):
              Then the sixth angel blew his trumpet, and I heard a voice from the four horns of the golden altar before God,

              Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
              ἕκτος : sixth.
              ἐσάλπισεν : aorist of σαλπίζω sound/blow a trumpet.
              ἤκουσα : aorist of ἀκούω hear.
              μίαν : for τινά.
              τέσσαρες = 4.
              κέρας, -ατος, τό : horn.
              θυσιαστήριον : alter.
              χρυσός : gold.

              Comment


              • Revelation 9:14

                Text: (NA27):
                λέγοντα τῷ ἕκτῳ ἀγγέλῳ, ὁ ἔχων τὴν σάλπιγγα∑ λῦσον τοὺς τέσσαρας ἀγγέλους τοὺς δεδεμένους ἐπὶ τῷ ποταμῷ τῷ μεγάλῳ Εὐφράτῃ.

                Transliteration (Accordance):
                legonta tō̧ hektō̧ aggelō̧, ho echōn tēn salpigga; lyson tous tessaras aggelous tous dedemenous epi tō̧ potamō̧ tō̧ megalō̧ Euphratȩ̄.

                Translation (NRSV):
                one saying to the sixth angel that had one trumpet, Loose the four angels that are bound at the great river Euphrates.

                Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                λέγοντα : (masculine) for λέγουσαν (in apposition to φωνήν).
                ὁ ἔχων : for τῷ ἔχοντι.
                σάλπιγξ, -ιγγος, ἡ : trumpet.
                λῦσον : aorist imperative of λύω release, set free.
                δεδεμένους : perfect passive participle of δέω bind, especially as prisoner.
                ἐπί : at.
                ποταμός : river.

                Comment


                • Revelation 9:15

                  Text: (NA27):
                  καὶ ἐλύθησαν οἱ τέσσαρες ἄγγελοι οἱ ἡτοιμασμένοι εἰς τὴν ὥραν καὶ ἡμέραν καὶ μῆνα καὶ ἐνιαυτόν, ἵνα ἀποκτείνωσιν τὸ τρίτον τῶν ἀνθρώπων.

                  Transliteration (Accordance):
                  kai elythēsan hoi tessares aggeloi hoi hētoimasmenoi eis tēn hōran kai hēmeran kai mēna kai eniauton, hina apokteinōsin to triton tōn anthrōpōn.

                  Translation (NRSV):
                  So the four angels were released, who had been held ready for the hour, the day, the month, and the year, to kill a third of humankind.

                  Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                  ἐλύθησαν : aorist passive of λύω release.
                  ἡτοιμασμένοι : ready, prepared perfect passive participle of ἑτοιμάζω.
                  εἰς : for μήν.
                  ἐνιαυτό : year.
                  ἀποκτείνωσιν : aorist subjunctive of ἀποκτείνω kill.
                  τρίτον τό : a third (part).

                  Comment


                  • Revelation 9:16

                    Text: (NA27):
                    καὶ ὁ ἀριθμὸς τῶν στρατευμάτων τοῦ ἱππικοῦ δισμυριάδες μυριάδων, ἤκουσα τὸν ἀριθμὸν αὐτῶν.

                    Transliteration (Accordance):
                    kai ho arithmos tōn strateumatōn tou hippikou dismyriades myriadōn, ēkousa ton arithmon autōn.

                    Translation (NRSV):
                    The number of the troops of cavalry was two hundred million; I heard their number.

                    Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                    ἀριθμός : number.
                    στράτευμα : army ; also a force of troops.
                    ἱππικός : cavalry.
                    δισμυριάς, -άδος, ἡ = 20,000.
                    μυριάς, -άδος, ἡ = 10,000
                    ἤκουσα : aorist of ἀκούω hear.

                    Comment


                    • Revelation 9:17

                      Text: (NA27):
                      Καὶ οὕτως εἶδον τοὺς ἵππους ἐν τῇ ὁράσει καὶ τοὺς καθημένους ἐπ᾿ αὐτῶν, ἔχοντας θώρακας πυρίνους καὶ ὑακινθίνους καὶ θειώδεις, καὶ αἱ κεφαλαὶ τῶν ἵππων ὡς κεφαλαὶ λεόντων, καὶ ἐκ τῶν στομάτων αὐτῶν ἐκπορεύεται πῦρ καὶ καπνὸς καὶ θεῖον.

                      Transliteration (Accordance):
                      Kai houtōs eidon tous hippous en tȩ̄ horasei kai tous kathēmenous epí autōn, echontas thōrakas pyrinous kai hyakinthinous kai theiōdeis, kai hai kephalai tōn hippōn hōs kephalai leontōn, kai ek tōn stomatōn autōn ekporeuetai pyr kai kapnos kai theion.

                      Translation (NRSV):
                      And this was how I saw the horses in my vision: the riders wore breastplates the color of fire and of sapphire and of sulfur; the heads of the horses were like lionsí heads, and fire and smoke and sulfur came out of their mouths.

                      Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                      οὕτως εἶδον : this is how I saw....
                      ἵππος : horse.
                      ὅρασις : sight ; vision.
                      καθημένους : participle of κάθημαι: τοὺς καθημένους ἐπ᾿ αὐτῶν their riders.
                      ἔχοντας : participle of ἔχω, translate with.
                      θώραξ, -ακος, ὁ : breast-plate.
                      πύρινος : red.
                      ὑακίνθινος : violet.
                      θειώδης : (< θεῖον) yellow.
                      λέων, -οντος, ὁ : lion.
                      ἐκπορεύομαι : come out, issue.
                      καπνός : smoke.
                      θεῖον : sulphur.

                      Comment


                      • Revelation 9:18

                        Text: (NA27):
                        ἀπὸ τῶν τριῶν πληγῶν τούτων ἀπεκτάνθησαν τὸ τρίτον τῶν ἀνθρώπων, ἐκ τοῦ πυρὸς καὶ τοῦ καπνοῦ καὶ τοῦ θείου τοῦ ἐκπορευομένου ἐκ τῶν στομάτων αὐτῶν.

                        Transliteration (Accordance):
                        apo tōn triōn plēgōn toutōn apektanthēsan to triton tōn anthrōpōn, ek tou pyros kai tou kapnou kai tou theiou tou ekporeuomenou ek tōn stomatōn autōn.

                        Translation (NRSV):
                        By these three plagues a third of humankind was killed, by the fire and smoke and sulfur coming out of their mouths.

                        Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                        τριῶν : genitive of τρεῖς three.
                        πληγή : (< πλήσσω strike) wound ; metonymy plague.
                        ἀπεκτάνθησαν : aorist passive of ἀποκτείνω kill.
                        τό τρίτον : a third (part).

                        Comment


                        • Revelation 9:19

                          Text: (NA27):
                          ἡ γὰρ ἐξουσία τῶν ἵππων ἐν τῷ στόματι αὐτῶν ἐστιν καὶ ἐν ταῖς οὐραῖς αὐτῶν, αἱ γὰρ οὐραὶ αὐτῶν ὅμοιαι ὄφεσιν, ἔχουσαι κεφαλὰς καὶ ἐν αὐταῖς ἀδικοῦσιν.

                          Transliteration (Accordance):
                          hē gar exousia tōn hippōn en tō̧ stomati autōn estin kai en tais ourais autōn, hai gar ourai autōn homoiai ophesin, echousai kephalas kai en autais adikousin.

                          Translation (NRSV):
                          For the power of the horses is in their mouths and in their tails; their tails are like serpents, having heads; and with them they inflict harm.

                          Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                          ἐξουσία : power.
                          οὐρά : tail.
                          ὄφις : snake.
                          ἔχουσαι : participle of ἔχω have.
                          ἐν : (3rd occurrence) instrumental.
                          ἀδικέω : injure.

                          Comment


                          • Revelation 9:20

                            Text: (NA27):
                            Καὶ οἳ λοιποὶ τῶν ἀνθρώπων, οἱ οὐκ ἀπεκτάνθησαν ἐν ταῖς πληγαῖς ταύταις, οὐδὲ μετενόησαν ἐκ τῶν ἔργων τῶν χειρῶν αὐτῶν, ἵνα μὴ προσκυνήσουσιν τὰ δαιμόνια καὶ τὰ εἴδωλα τὰ χρυσᾶ καὶ τὰ ἀργυρᾶ καὶ τὰ χαλκᾶ καὶ τὰ λίθινα καὶ τὰ ξύλινα, ἃ οὔτε βλέπειν δύνανται οὔτε ἀκούειν οὔτε περιπατεῖν

                            Transliteration (Accordance):
                            Kai hoi loipoi tōn anthrōpōn, hoi ouk apektanthēsan en tais plēgais tautais, oude metenoēsan ek tōn ergōn tōn cheirōn autōn, hina mē proskynēsousin ta daimonia kai ta eidōla ta chrysa kai ta argyra kai ta chalka kai ta lithina kai ta xylina, ha oute blepein dynantai oute akouein oute peripatein

                            Translation (NRSV):
                            The rest of humankind, who were not killed by these plagues, did not repent of the works of their hands or give up worshiping demons and idols of gold and silver and bronze and stone and wood, which cannot see or hear or walk.

                            Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                            λοιπός : left (behind), οἳ λοιποί the rest.
                            οὐδέ : not even, perhaps (here) not even then.
                            μετενόησαν : aorist of μετανοέω change one's mind (νοῦς), repent, followed by ἐπί, or ἀπό, or ἐκ repent of.
                            τὰ ἔργα τῶν χειρῶν αὐτῶν : namely, idols.
                            ἵνα : consecutive, associated with μετενόησαν in such a way that they no longer.
                            προσκυνήσουσιν : future of προσκυνέω (τινί, sometimes τινά), worship, future for subjunctive.
                            εἴδωλον : idol.
                            χρυσοῦς, -ῆ, -οῦν : (of) gold.
                            ἀργυροῦς, -ᾶ, -οῦν : (of) silver.
                            χαλκοῦς, -ῆ, -οῦν : of bronze.
                            λίθινος : (λίθος stone) of stone.
                            ξύλινος : (ξύλον wood} of wood.

                            Comment


                            • Revelation 9:21

                              Text: (NA27):
                              καὶ οὐ μετενόησαν ἐκ τῶν φόνων αὐτῶν οὔτε ἐκ τῶν φαρμάκων αὐτῶν οὔτε ἐκ τῆς πορνείας αὐτῶν οὔτε ἐκ τῶν κλεμμάτων αὐτῶν.

                              Transliteration (Accordance):
                              kai ou metenoēsan ek tōn phonōn autōn oute ek tōn pharmakōn autōn oute ek tēs porneias autōn oute ek tōn klemmatōn autōn.

                              Translation (NRSV):
                              And they did not repent of their murders or their sorceries or their fornication or their thefts.

                              Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                              φόνος : murder.
                              φάρμακον : a drug used as a controlling medium, magic potion, charm.
                              πορνεία : immorality of a transcendent nature, fornication, in imagery, of polytheistic cult in the mystic city Babylon, which appears in Rv as a prostitute with an international clientele.
                              κλεμμά : (< κλέπτω steal) theft.

                              Comment


                              • Revelation 10:1

                                Text: (NA27):
                                Καὶ εἶδον ἄλλον ἄγγελον ἰσχυρὸν καταβαίνοντα ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ περιβεβλημένον νεφέλην, καὶ ἡ ἶρις ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς αὐτοῦ καὶ τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ ὡς ὁ ἥλιος καὶ οἱ πόδες αὐτοῦ ὡς στῦλοι πυρός

                                Transliteration (Accordance):
                                Kai eidon allon aggelon ischyron katabainonta ek tou ouranou peribeblēmenon nephelēn, kai hē iris epi tēs kephalēs autou kai to prosōpon autou hōs ho hēlios kai hoi podes autou hōs styloi pyros

                                Translation (NRSV):
                                And I saw another mighty angel coming down from heaven, wrapped in a cloud, with a rainbow over his head; his face was like the sun, and his legs like pillars of fire.

                                Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                                ἰσχυρός : strong.
                                καταβαίνοντα : participle of καταβαίνω come down.
                                περιβεβλημένον : perfect passive participle of περιβάλλω put on or around one ; περιβέβλημαί τι be clothed in something.
                                νεφέλη : cloud.
                                ἶρις, -ιδος, ἡ : rainbow.
                                ἥλιος : sun.
                                πούς, ποδός, ὁ : (foot), here leg.
                                στῦλος : pillar.

                                Comment

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