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Revelation

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  • Revelation

    This is a non-debate reading and grammatical analysis thread.

    Please do not post any cabala in this thread.

    The cross-references presented in this thread are from the marginal apparatus of the Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament.

    Abbreviations:

    BDAG: A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature Third
    .........Edition Revised and Edited by Frederick William Danker (University of Chicago Press, 2000).

    BG: Biblical Greek Illustrated by Examples, English Edition Adapted from the Fourth Latin Edition by Joseph Smith, S.J.. (Rome: Scripta Pontificii Instituti Biblici, 1963), by Maximilian Zerwick, S.J.

    BHS: Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1997).

    LXX: Septuaginta : Editio altera, Revised Edition (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2006),
    ..........edited by Alfred Rahlfs

    NA27: Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament (27th edition), edited by Barbara and Kurt Aland,
    ..........Johannes Karavidopoulos, Carlo M. Martini, and Bruce M. Metzger.

    NETS: A New English Translation of the Septuagint and the Other Greek Translations Traditionally
    ..........Included Under That Title
    , Albert Pietersma and Benjamin G. Wright, Editors (Oxford, 2007).

    Zerwick: An Analysis of the Greek New Testament, by Max Zerwick and Mary Grosvenor
    .............(Rome: Biblical Institute Press, 1981).
    Last edited by John Reece; 03-09-2014, 08:14 PM.

  • #2
    Revelation 1:1

    Text: (NA27):
    Ἀποκάλυψις Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ἣν ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ ὁ θεὸς δεῖξαι τοῖς δούλοις αὐτοῦ ἃ δεῖ γενέσθαι ἐν τάχει, καὶ ἐσήμανεν ἀποστείλας διὰ τοῦ ἀγγέλου αὐτοῦ τῷ δούλῳ αὐτοῦ Ἰωάννῃ,

    Transliteration (Accordance):
    Apokalypsis Iēsou Christou hēn edōken autō̧ ho theos deixai tois doulois autou ha dei genesthai en tachei, kai esēmanen aposteilas dia tou aggelou autou tō̧ doulō̧ autou Iōannȩ̄,

    Translation (NRSV):
    The revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show his servants what must soon take place; he made it known by sending his angel to his servant John,

    Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG):
    ἀποκάλυψις : (< ἀποκαλύπτω reveal) revelation.
    ἔδωκεν : aorist of δίδωμι give.
    δεῖξαι : aorist infinitive of δείκνυμι show.
    γενέσθαι : aorist infinitive of γίνομαι
    τάχος : speed ; ἐν τάχει quickly, shortly.
    ἐσήμανεν : aorist of σημαίνω indicate, make known.
    ἀποστείλας : aorist participle of ἀποστέλλω.
    Last edited by John Reece; 03-09-2014, 08:13 PM.

    Comment


    • #3
      Revelation 1:2

      Text: (NA27):
      ὃς ἐμαρτύρησεν τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τὴν μαρτυρίαν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ὅσα εἶδεν.

      Transliteration (Accordance):
      hos emartyrēsen ton logon tou theou kai tēn martyrian Iēsou Christou hosa eiden.

      Translation (NRSV):
      who testified to the word of God and to the testimony of Jesus Christ, even to all that he saw.

      Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG):
      ἐμαρτύρησεν : aorist of μαρτυρέω epistolary aorist ἐμαρτύρησεν ... ὅσα εἶδεν bears witness to all that he saw as being the word of God and ...
      μαρτυρία : testimony.
      Last edited by John Reece; 03-09-2014, 08:13 PM.

      Comment


      • #4
        Revelation 1:3

        Text: (NA27):
        Μακάριος ὁ ἀναγινώσκων καὶ οἱ ἀκούοντες τοὺς λόγους τῆς προφητείας καὶ τηροῦντες τὰ ἐν αὐτῇ γεγραμμένα, ὁ γὰρ καιρὸς ἐγγύς.

        Transliteration (Accordance):
        Makarios ho anaginōskōn kai hoi akouontes tous logous tēs prophēteias kai tērountes ta en autȩ̄ gegrammena, ho gar kairos eggys.

        Translation (NRSV):
        Blessed is the one who reads aloud the words of the prophecy, and blessed are those who hear and who keep what is written in it; for the time is near.

        Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
        μακάριος : privileged recipient of divine favor blessed.
        ἀναγινώσκων : participle of ἀναγινώσκω read.
        ἀκούοντες : participle of ἀκούω hear.
        προφητεία : prophecy, τῆς προφητείας this prophecy.
        τηροῦντες : participle of τηρέω keep.
        γεγραμμένα : perfect passive participle of γράφω write.
        ἐγγύς : pertaining to being close in point of time, near.
        Last edited by John Reece; 03-09-2014, 08:12 PM.

        Comment


        • #5
          Revelation 1:4

          Text: (NA27):
          Ἰωάννης ταῖς ἑπτὰ ἐκκλησίαις ταῖς ἐν τῇ Ἀσίᾳ· χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη ἀπὸ ὁ ὢν καὶ ὁ ἦν καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν ἑπτὰ πνευμάτων ἃ ἐνώπιον τοῦ θρόνου αὐτοῦ

          Transliteration (Accordance):
          Iōannēs tais hepta ekklēsiais tais en tȩ̄ Asia̧; charis hymin kai eirēnē apo ho ōn kai ho ēn kai ho erchomenos kai apo tōn hepta pneumatōn ha enōpion tou thronou autou

          Translation (NRSV):
          John to the seven churches that are in Asia: Grace to you and peace from him who is and who was and who is to come, and from the seven spirits who are before his throne,

          Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
          Ἀσία : the Roman province, now SW region of Turkey.
          ὢν : participle of εἰμί:
          ὁ ὢν καὶ ὁ ἦν καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος : treated as an indeclinable name.
          ὁ ἦν : indicative supplying for durative past participle ; the fact that the whole "name" is undeclined after ἀπό adds the impression of immutability to that of eternity.
          ἐρχόμενος : participle of ἔρχομαι: ὁ ἐρχόμενος Mk 11:9, Heb 10:37 ὁ ὢν καὶ ὁ ἦν καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος he who is and who was and who is to come.
          ἑπτὰ πνευμάτων : in Jewish literature of the seven archangels who stand before (the throne of) God ; others understand the Holy Spirit with his sevenfold manifestation to the 7 churches, or again as one in name, yet seven in power, cf Isaiah 11:2.
          θρόνος : throne.
          Last edited by John Reece; 03-09-2014, 08:12 PM.

          Comment


          • #6
            Revelation 1:5

            Text: (NA27):
            καὶ ἀπὸ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, ὁ μάρτυς, ὁ πιστός, ὁ πρωτότοκος τῶν νεκρῶν καὶ ὁ ἄρχων τῶν βασιλέων τῆς γῆς. Τῷ ἀγαπῶντι ἡμᾶς καὶ λύσαντι ἡμᾶς ἐκ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν ἐν τῷ αἵματι αὐτοῦ,

            Transliteration (Accordance):
            kai apo Iēsou Christou, ho martys, ho pistos, ho prōtotokos tōn nekrōn kai ho archōn tōn basileōn tēs gēs. Tō̧ agapōnti hēmas kai lysanti hēmas ek tōn hamartiōn hēmōn en tō̧ haimati autou,

            Translation (NRSV):
            and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To him who loves us and freed us from our sins by his blood,

            Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
            μάρτυς, μάρτυρος, ὁ : witness ; after Χριστοῦ the genitive is abandoned in spite of apposition.
            πιστός : faithful.
            πρωτότοκος : first-born, πρωτότοκος τῶν νεκρῶν less in time than in worthiness and honour.
            ἄρχων, ἄρχοντος, ὁ : ruler.
            ἀγαπῶντι : participle of ἀγαπάω love.
            λύσαντι : aorist participle of λύω loose, free.
            ἐν : instrumental.
            Last edited by John Reece; 03-09-2014, 08:11 PM.

            Comment


            • #7
              Revelation 1:6

              Text: (NA27):
              καὶ ἐποίησεν ἡμᾶς βασιλείαν, ἱερεῖς τῷ θεῷ καὶ πατρὶ αὐτοῦ, αὐτῷ ἡ δόξα καὶ τὸ κράτος εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας [τῶν αἰώνων]· ἀμήν

              Transliteration (Accordance):
              kai epoiēsen hēmas basileian, hiereis tō̧ theō̧ kai patri autou, autō̧ hē doxa kai to kratos eis tous aiōnas [tōn aiōnōn]; amēn

              Translation (NRSV):
              and made us to be a kingdom, priests serving his God and Father, to him be glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen.

              Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
              ἐποίησεν : aorist of ποιέω make.
              5b τῷ ἀγαπῶντι ἡμᾶς καὶ λύσαντι ἡμᾶς ἐκ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν ἐν τῷ αἵματι αὐτοῦ, 6a καὶ ἐποίησεν: καί coordinate continuing the participial construction with indicative, cf 2 Cor 6:9 (καὶ ζῶμεν), 2 Jn 2 (καὶ᾿ ἔσται).
              βασιλεία : a people under the kingship of God or rather eschatological : kingdom, dominion, sovereignty 20:6, 1 Thess 2:12.
              ἱερεύς : priest.
              ὁ θεὸς καὶ πατήρ : under one article, referring to the same Person.
              αὐτοῦ : of Christ, associated also with θεῷ.
              κράτος : might.
              εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας : for ever.
              Last edited by John Reece; 03-09-2014, 08:11 PM.

              Comment


              • #8
                Revelation 1:7

                Text: (NA27):
                Ἰδοὺ ἔρχεται μετὰ τῶν νεφελῶν, καὶ ὄψεται αὐτὸν πᾶς ὀφθαλμὸς καὶ οἵτινες αὐτὸν ἐξεκέντησαν, καὶ κόψονται ἐπ᾿ αὐτὸν πᾶσαι αἱ φυλαὶ τῆς γῆς.
                ναί, ἀμήν

                Transliteration (Accordance):
                Idou erchetai meta tōn nephelōn, kai opsetai auton pas ophthalmos kai hoitines auton exekentēsan, kai kopsontai ep’ auton pasai hai phylai tēs gēs.
                nai, amēn

                Translation (NRSV):
                Look! He is coming with the clouds; every eye will see him, even those who pierced him; and on his account all the tribes of the earth will wail. So it is to be. Amen.

                Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                νεφέλη : cloud.
                ὄψεται : future of ὁράω see.
                οἵτινες = οἵ.
                ἐξεκέντησαν : aorist of ἐκκεντέω pierce.
                κόψονται : future middle of κόπτω beat ; middle ἐπί τινω beat the breast, mourn for one.
                φυλή : tribe.
                ναί : yes, here emphasizing the foregoing, so it shall be.
                Last edited by John Reece; 03-09-2014, 08:10 PM.

                Comment


                • #9
                  revelation 1:8

                  Text: (NA27):
                  Ἐγώ εἰμι τὸ ἄλφα καὶ τὸ ὦ, λέγει κύριος ὁ θεός, ὁ ὢν καὶ ὁ ἦν καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος, ὁ παντοκράτωρ.

                  Transliteration (Accordance):
                  Egō eimi to alpha kai to ō, legei kyrios ho theos, ho ōn kai ho ēn kai ho erchomenos, ho pantokratōr.

                  Translation (NRSV):
                  “I am the Alpha and the Omega,” says the Lord God, who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty.

                  Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                  τὸ ἄλφα καὶ τὸ Ω : the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet, therefore the beginning and the end ; rabbinical expression adapted to Greek by substitution of Ω for tau.
                  παντοκράτωρ : almighty, all-sovereign.
                  Last edited by John Reece; 03-09-2014, 08:10 PM.

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Revelation 1:9

                    Text: (NA27):
                    Ἐγὼ Ἰωάννης, ὁ ἀδελφὸς ὑμῶν καὶ συγκοινωνὸς ἐν τῇ θλίψει καὶ βασιλείᾳ καὶ ὑπομονῇ ἐν Ἰησοῦ, ἐγενόμην ἐν τῇ νήσῳ τῇ καλουμένῃ Πάτμῳ διὰ τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τὴν μαρτυρίαν Ἰησοῦ.

                    Transliteration (Accordance):
                    Egō Iōannēs, ho adelphos hymōn kai sygkoinōnos en tȩ̄ thlipsei kai basileia̧ kai hypomonȩ̄ en Iēsou, egenomēn en tȩ̄ nēsō̧ tȩ̄ kaloumenȩ̄ Patmō̧ dia ton logon tou theou kai tēn martyrian Iēsou.

                    Translation (NRSV):
                    I, John, your brother who share with you in Jesus the persecution and the kingdom and the patient endurance, was on the island called Patmos because of the word of God and the testimony of Jesus.

                    Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                    συγκοινωνός : fellow-sharer.
                    θλῖψις : distres, suffering, tribulation.
                    βασιλεία : a people under the kingship of God or rather eschatological : kingdom, dominion, sovereignty.
                    ὑπομονή : endurance, fortitude : three ideas which pervade the whole book, the three under one article,* closely associated with Jesus.
                    ἐν : in.**
                    ἐγενόμην : aorist of γίνομαι become ; come about ; often = be.
                    νῆσος, -ου, ἡ : island.
                    καλουμένῃ : called, passive participle of καλέω called.
                    διά : with accusative on account of seems to point to persecution as the reason for his staying on the island.
                    μαρτυρία : testimony, μαρτυρίαν Ἰησοῦ (genitive object) testimony to Jesus.
                    *BG §184. The repetition of the article distinguishes two coordinated notions, while on the contrary the use of but one article before a number of nouns indicates that they are conceived as forming a certain unity, if not as identical. ....
                    **BG §118. Some may perhaps be apprehensive lest we reduce to banality certain Pauline formulae which are dear to us and full of boundless depths of meaning, by putting ἐν Χριστῷ ἐν πνεύματι and the like in the same class, philologically, with ἐν πνεύματι ἀκαθάρτᾠ, ἐν ῥύσει αἵματος, and even with ἐν ῥάβδῳ and ἐν τάχει. Such apprehension is unfounded; for here again we must repeat what was said in dealing with the genitive (...): we must beware of the notion that words and grammatical usage that words have of themselves a certain definite and invariable content of meaning. They are in reality conventional signs whose sense is usually fairly general, the exact meaning being in each case determined by usage and above all by the subject matter. Just as the genitive of itself indicates merely an appurtenance of one thing to another, and for this reason may, according to the subject matter, express even the most exalted mystical union between Christ and those who are "Christ's", so too ἐν, indicating of itself merely association or concomitance, may represent, according to the subject matter, connections of utterly different kinds, from that between an action and its rapidity (ἐν τάχει) to that between Christ and those who are "in Christ". Hence the nature of this connection is to be sought in divine revelation, and not in the sense of the word ἐν. It would be a waste of time and energy to collect from profane literature all the occurrences of ἐν with a noun standing for a person, in hope of arriving at a deeper understanding of the mystery Paul intended to express by the words ἐν Χριστῷ.
                    Last edited by John Reece; 03-09-2014, 08:09 PM.

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      Revelation 1:10

                      Text: (NA27):
                      ἐγενόμην ἐν πνεύματι ἐν τῇ κυριακῇ ἡμέρᾳ καὶ ἤκουσα ὀπίσω μου φωνὴν μεγάλην ὡς σάλπιγγος

                      Transliteration (Accordance):
                      egenomēn en pneumati en tȩ̄ kyriakȩ̄ hēmera̧ kai ēkousa opisō mou phōnēn megalēn hōs salpiggos

                      Translation (NRSV):
                      I was in the spirit on the Lord’s day, and I heard behind me a loud voice like a trumpet

                      Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                      ἐν πνεύματι : state in which one is particularly sensitive to the Spirit's influence.
                      κυριακός : pertaining to belonging to the Lord, of the Lord.
                      ἤκουσα : aorist of ἀκούω hear.
                      ὀπίσω : behind, adverb, as preposition with genitive.
                      σάλπιγξ, -ιγγος, ἡ : trumpet.
                      Last edited by John Reece; 03-09-2014, 08:08 PM.

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Revelation 1:11

                        Text: (NA27):
                        λεγούσης· ὃ βλέπεις γράψον εἰς βιβλίον καὶ πέμψον ταῖς ἑπτὰ ἐκκλησίαις, εἰς Ἔφεσον καὶ εἰς Σμύρναν καὶ εἰς Πέργαμον καὶ εἰς Θυάτειρα καὶ εἰς Σάρδεις καὶ εἰς Φιλαδέλφειαν καὶ εἰς Λαοδίκειαν.

                        Transliteration (Accordance):
                        legousēs; ho blepeis grapson eis biblion kai pempson tais hepta ekklēsiais, eis Epheson kai eis Smyrnan kai eis Pergamon kai eis Thyateira kai eis Sardeis kai eis Philadelpheian kai eis Laodikeian.

                        Translation (NRSV):
                        saying, “Write in a book what you see and send it to the seven churches, to Ephesus, to Smyrna, to Pergamum, to Thyatira, to Sardis, to Philadelphia, and to Laodicea.”

                        Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                        λεγούσης : feminine participle of λέγω say.
                        γράψον : aorist imperative of γράφω write.
                        πέμψον : aorist imperative of πέμπω send.
                        βιβλίον : originally diminutive, became equivalent of βίβλος ἡ (= βῦβλος papyrus) papyrus roll, book.
                        Last edited by John Reece; 03-09-2014, 08:07 PM.

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          Revelation 1:12

                          Text: (NA27):
                          Καὶ ἐπέστρεψα βλέπειν τὴν φωνὴν ἥτις ἐλάλει μετ᾿ ἐμοῦ, καὶ ἐπιστρέψας εἶδον ἑπτὰ λυχνίας χρυσᾶς

                          Transliteration (Accordance):
                          Kai epestrepsa blepein tēn phōnēn hētis elalei met’ emou, kai epistrepsas eidon hepta lychnias chrysas

                          Translation (NRSV):
                          Then I turned to see whose voice it was that spoke to me, and on turning I saw seven golden lampstands,

                          Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                          ἐπέστρεψα : aorist of ἐπιστρέφω turn around, transitive and intransitive.
                          βλέπειν : to see, infinitive, βλέπειν τὴν φωνὴν i.e. to see whose voice.
                          ἥτις = ἥ.
                          ἐλάλει : imperfect of λαλέω speak.
                          ἐπιστρέψας : when I turned around, aorist participle of ἐπιστρέφω.
                          λυχνία : lampstand.
                          χρυσοῦς, (genitive -οῦ) -ῆ, -οῦν : made of gold.
                          Last edited by John Reece; 03-09-2014, 08:07 PM.

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            Revelation 1:13

                            Text: (NA27):
                            καὶ ἐν μέσῳ τῶν λυχνιῶν ὅμοιον υἱὸν ἀνθρώπου ἐνδεδυμένον ποδήρη καὶ περιεζωσμένον πρὸς τοῖς μαστοῖς ζώνην χρυσᾶν.

                            Transliteration (Accordance):
                            kai en mesō̧ tōn lychniōn homoion huion anthrōpou endedymenon podērē kai periezōsmenon pros tois mastois zōnēn chrysan.

                            Translation (NRSV):
                            and in the midst of the lampstands I saw one like the Son of Man, clothed with a long robe and with a golden sash across his chest.

                            Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                            μέσος : middle, ἐν μέσῳ without article as often in prepositional phrases.
                            ὅμοιος : with dative like (something) ; here mistakenly (as in 14:14) construed like ὡς which does not affect the case.
                            ἐνδεδυμένον : perfect participle middle of ἐνδύω clothe (someone else) ; middle put on (oneself), wear.
                            ποδήρης : sc. χιτών (garment) reaching to the feet.
                            περιεζωσμένον : perfect participle middle or passive of περιζώννυμί τι gird one with something ; middle gird oneself (perfect wear) ; passive be girded with...
                            μαστός : breast, πρὸς τοῖς μαστοῖς round his chest.
                            ζώνη : girdle.
                            χρυσᾶν for -ῆ (? by parallel with ἀργυρᾶν).
                            Last edited by John Reece; 03-09-2014, 08:06 PM.

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              Revelation 1:14

                              Text: (NA27):
                              ἡ δὲ κεφαλὴ αὐτοῦ καὶ αἱ τρίχες λευκαὶ ὡς ἔριον λευκόν ὡς χιὼν καὶ οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ αὐτοῦ ὡς φλὸξ πυρὸς

                              Transliteration (Accordance):
                              hē de kephalē autou kai hai triches leukai hōs erion leukon hōs chiōn kai hoi ophthalmoi autou hōs phlox pyros

                              Translation (NRSV):
                              His head and his hair were white as white wool, white as snow; his eyes were like a flame of fire,

                              Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                              θρίξ, τριχός, ἡ : hair.
                              λευκός : white.
                              ἔριον : wool.
                              χιών, χιόνος, ἡ : snow.
                              φλόξ, φλογός, ἡ : flame.
                              Last edited by John Reece; 03-09-2014, 08:06 PM.

                              Comment

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