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This is where we come to delve into the biblical text. Theology is not our foremost thought, but we realize it is something that will be dealt with in nearly every conversation. Feel free to use the original languages to make your point (meaning Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic). This is an exegetical discussion area, so please limit topics to purely biblical ones.

This is not the section for debates between theists and atheists. While a theistic viewpoint is not required for discussion in this area, discussion does presuppose a respect for the integrity of the Biblical text (or the willingness to accept such a presupposition for discussion purposes) and a respect for the integrity of the faith of others and a lack of an agenda to undermine the faith of others.

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1 Corinthians 12-14

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  • 1 Corinthians 12-14

    NOTICE

    Please: Do not post any cabala in this thread

    ABBREVIATIONS:

    BDAG: A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature Third Edition Revised and Edited by Frederick William Danker (University of Chicago Press, 2000).

    BG: Biblical Greek Illustrated by Examples, English Edition Adapted from the Fourth Latin Edition by Joseph Smith, S.J.. (Rome: Scripta Pontificii Instituti Biblici, 1963), by Maximilian Zerwick, S.J.

    NA27: Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament (27th edition), edited by Barbara and Kurt Aland, Johannes Karavidopoulos, Carlo M. Martini, and Bruce M. Metzger.

    Thiselton 2000: New International Greek Testament Commentary (NIGTC) The First Epistle to the Corinthian (Eerdmans, 2000), by Anthony C. Thiselton.

    Thiselton 2006: 1 Corinthians: A Shorter Exegetical and Pastoral Commentary (Eerdmans, 2006), by Anthony C. Thiselton.

    Zerwick: An Analysis of the Greek New Testament, by Max Zerwick and Mary Grosvenor (Rome: Biblical Institute Press, 1981).[/indent]

    From New Testament Commentary Survey (Baker Academic, 2013), by D. A. Carson:
    The best commentary on the Greek Text of 1 Corinthians is Anthony C. Thiselton (NIGTC, 2000). The work is very impressive. Over 1,400 pages long, it could easily have been a ponderous volume of massive learning and impenetrable prose. But Thiselton has outdone himself. Every section I scanned is well written, accessible (for readers of this sort of series!), and penetrating. It provides not only detailed exegesis but also a tracing of the main issues of interpretation from the church fathers to the present. The work will doubtless prove too difficult for poorly trained pastors, but for those with the requisite skills this commentary will prove an invaluable resource. Thiselton has also published 1 Corinthians: A Shorter Exegetical and Pastoral Commentary ( Eerdmans, 2006). This is not merely a précis of his larger work, designed for those without knowledge of Greek; rather, it includes both fresh exposition and additional sections with astute pastoral reflection.

    I propose to use Thiselton 2006 in the Translation section of my usual format for language threads.

    Please feel free to comment on and/or question what I post herein.

  • #2
    1 Corinthians 12:1

    Text: (NA27):
    Περὶ δὲ τῶν πνευματικῶν, ἀδελφοί, οὐ θέλω ὑμᾶς ἀγνοεῖν.

    Transliteration (Accordance):
    Peri de tōn pneumatikōn, adelphoi, ou thelō hymas agnoein.

    Translation (Thiselton 2006):
    Now about "what comes from the Spirit," my dear Christian family, I do not want you to be without knowledge.

    Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
    πνευματικός : spiritual, τὰ πνευματικά special gifts of the Holy Spirit in which the church of Corinth abounded.
    ἀγνοεῖν : infinitive of ἀγνοέω not to know, be ignorant.

    Comment


    • #3
      1 Corinthians 12:2

      Text: (NA27):
      Οἴδατε ὅτι ὅτε ἔθνη ἦτε πρὸς τὰ εἴδωλα τὰ ἄφωνα ὡς ἂν ἤγεσθε ἀπαγόμενοι.

      Transliteration (Accordance):
      Oidate hoti hote ethnē ēte pros ta eidōla ta aphōna hōs an ēgesthe apagomenoi.

      Translation (Thiselton 2006):
      You know that when you were pagans, you used to be carried away to idols that were incapable of speech.

      Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
      ὅτι : that explained by ὡς ἄν.
      ἔθνη : (plural) pagans.
      ἦτε : imperfect of εἰμί be.
      εἴδωλον : idol.
      ἄφωνος : voice-less, dumb.
      ἄν : with imperfect iterative denotes repeated action in the past.
      ἤγεσθε : imperfect passive of ἄγω lead.
      ἀπαγόμενοι : passive participle of ἀπάγω lead away, ὡς ἂν ἤγεσθε ἀπαγόμενοι how you were irresistibly drawn (ἤγεσθε ἀπαγόμενοι translating a very emphatic Hebrew idiom), so Jerusalem Bible. Others (mentally supplying a first ἦτε after ὅτι construe ἦτε with ἀπαγόμενοι to form a periphrastic imperfect constituting a temporal clause, ...when still pagans you used to be led astray to dumb idols...; ὡς ἂν ἤγεσθε would then mean as you were ever being led (cf. Weymouth, RSV, NEB).

      Comment


      • #4
        1 Corinthians 12:3

        Text: (NA27):
        διὸ γνωρίζω ὑμῖν ὅτι οὐδεὶς ἐν πνεύματι θεοῦ λαλῶν λέγει· Ἀνάθεμα Ἰησοῦς, καὶ οὐδεὶς δύναται εἰπεῖν· Κύριος Ἰησοῦς, εἰ μὴ ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ.

        Transliteration (Accordance):
        dio gnōrizō hymin hoti oudeis en pneumati theou lalōn legei; Anathema Iēsous, kai oudeis dynatai eipein; Kyrios Iēsous, ei mē en pneumati hagiō̧.

        Translation (Thiselton 2006):
        Therefore I am imparting to you this "knowledge," that no one who is speaking through the agency of the Spirit of God says, "Jesus grants a curse [or is cursed]." And no one is able to declare, "Jesus is Lord," except through the agency of the Holy Spirit.

        Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
        διό = διʾ ὅ this is why.
        γνωρίζω : make known, point out.
        ὅτι : that, understand just as no one... (see καί below).
        ἐν : (sociative) of close personal relationship.
        λαλῶν : participle of λαλέω talk, speak.
        ἀνάθεμα : (< ἀνά + τίθημι) something set aside, "devoted" to the deity ; especially something accursed, predicate.
        καί : so.
        εἰπεῖν : aorist infinitive of λέγω say, tell.
        κύριος : predicate.
        εἰ μή : except.

        Comment


        • #5
          1 Corinthians 12:4

          Text: (NA27):
          Διαιρέσεις δὲ χαρισμάτων εἰσίν, τὸ δὲ αὐτὸ πνεῦμα

          Transliteration (Accordance):
          Diaireseis de charismatōn eisin, to de auto pneuma

          Translation (Thiselton 2006):
          There are different apportionings of gifts, but the same Spirit.

          Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
          διαίρεσις : (< διαιρέω distribute, divide, apportion) apportioning.
          χάρισμα : gift from God for the service of the community, the variety of gifts not effacing their unity which is grounded in the one God : ὸ πνεῦμα (verse 4), ὁ κύριος (verse 5), ὁ θεός (verse 6).
          εἰσίν : there are.
          ὁ αὐτός : the same.

          Comment


          • #6
            1 Corinthians 12:5

            Text: (NA27):
            καὶ διαιρέσεις διακονιῶν εἰσιν, καὶ ὁ αὐτὸς κύριος

            Transliteration (Accordance):
            kai diaireseis diakoniōn eisin, kai ho autos kyrios

            Translation (Thiselton 2006):
            There are varieties of ways of serving, but the same Lord.

            Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
            διακονία : ministry, service.

            Comment


            • #7
              1 Corinthians 12:6

              Text: (NA27):
              καὶ διαιρέσεις ἐνεργημάτων εἰσίν, ὁ δὲ αὐτὸς θεὸς ὁ ἐνεργῶν τὰ πάντα ἐν πᾶσιν.

              Transliteration (Accordance):
              kai diaireseis energēmatōn eisin, ho de autos theos ho energōn ta panta en pasin.

              Translation (Thiselton 2006):
              And there are different apportionings of what activates effects, but the same God who brings about everything in everyone.

              Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
              ἐνέργημα : (< ἐνεργέω) a working, activity.
              ἐνεργῶν : participle of ἐνεργέω work.

              Comment


              • #8
                1 Corinthians 12:7

                Text: (NA27):
                ἑκάστῳ δὲ δίδοται ἡ φανέρωσις τοῦ πνεύματος πρὸς τὸ συμφέρον

                Transliteration (Accordance):
                hekastō̧ de didotai hē phanerōsis tou pneumatos pros to sympheron

                Translation (Thiselton 2006):
                To each is given the public manifestation of the Spirit for common advantage.

                Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                δίδοται : passive of δίδωμι give.
                φανέρωσις : manifestation.
                συμφέρον : neuter participle of συμφέρει it is advantageous, useful, τὸ συμφέρον benefit.

                Comment


                • #9
                  1 Corinthians 12:8

                  Text: (NA27):
                  ᾧ μὲν γὰρ διὰ τοῦ πνεύματος δίδοται λόγος σοφίας, ἄλλῳ δὲ λόγος γνώσεως κατὰ τὸ αὐτὸ πνεῦμα

                  Transliteration (Accordance):
                  ō̧h men gar dia tou pneumatos didotai logos sophias, allō̧ de logos gnōseōs kata to auto pneuma

                  Translation (Thiselton 2006):
                  To one person, for his or her part, God bestows through the Spirit utterance related to "wisdom"; to another, in accordance with the same Spirit, discourse relating to "knowledge"

                  Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                  ᾧ μέν ... ἄλλῳ δέ : to one ... to another.
                  διά : through, not invariably limited to an intermediary cause.
                  λόγος σοφίας : expression of wisdom.
                  λόγος γνώσεως : presentation of knowledge. σοφία is the wider term and generally understood to refer to the profound and fundamental Christian verities, γνῶσις to Christian principles ; in both cases the χάρισμα is the capacity to impart to others : λόγος a communication whereby the mind finds expression, word, of utterance, chiefly oral.

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    1 Corinthians 12:9

                    Text: (NA27):
                    ἑτέρῳ πίστις ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ πνεύματι, ἄλλῳ δὲ χαρίσματα ἰαμάτων ἐν τῷ ἑνὶ πνεύματι

                    Transliteration (Accordance):
                    ἑτέρῳ πίστις ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ πνεύματι, ἄλλῳ δὲ χαρίσματα ἰαμάτων ἐν τῷ ἑνὶ πνεύματι

                    Translation (Thiselton 2006):
                    To a different person faith by the same Spirit; to another, gifts for various kinds of healing by the one Spirit.

                    Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                    ἕτερος = ἄλλος pertaining to that which is other than some other entity, other.
                    χάρισμα : gift from God for the service of the community, the variety of gifts not effacing their unity which is grounded in the one God : τὸ πνεῦμα (verse 4), ὁ κύριος (verse 5), ὁ θεός (verse 6).
                    ἴαμα : (< ἰάομαι heal) healing.

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      1 Corinthians 12:10

                      Text: (NA27):
                      ἄλλῳ δὲ ἐνεργήματα δυνάμεων, ἄλλῳ [δὲ] προφητεία, ἄλλῳ [δὲ] διακρίσεις πνευμάτων, ἑτέρῳ γένη γλωσσῶν, ἄλλῳ δὲ ἑρμηνεία γλωσσῶν

                      Transliteration (Accordance):
                      allō̧ de energēmata dynameōn, allō̧ [de] prophēteia, allō̧ [de] diakriseis pneumatōn, heterō̧ genē glōssōn, allō̧ de hermēneia glōssōn

                      Translation (Thiselton 2006):
                      To another, actively effective deeds of power; to another, prophecy; to another, discernment of what is "of the Spirit"; to another, species of tongues; and to another, intelligible articulation of what is spoken in tongues.

                      Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                      ἐνεργήμα : a working, activity.
                      προφητεία : prophecy.
                      διάκρισις : power of discrimination.
                      γένος : a kind. See comment below.
                      γλῶσσα : tongue ; language. See comment below.
                      ἑρμηνεία : See comment below.

                      Comment (Thiselton 2006):
                      Species of Tongues. Whatever may or may not be claimed about glossolalia, or speaking in tongues, it is imperative to note that Paul uses the generic phrase "species or kinds of tongues (Greek genē glōssōn). Many theories may fall short because they do not allow for the fact that within the New Testament and even in Paul's epistles there is more than one one unitary phenomenon that may be called a tongue. Hence the general question "What is speaking in tongues?" hardly helps anyone until we specify what the term denotes in this or that context of Scripture. Thus it is a huge leap to suggest that because the term might allude to "angelic language" in 13:1 this is necessarily what it denotes throughout 12 to 14.

                      Two key contrasts help to explain Paul's definition of "tongues" here. Whereas prophetic discourse is articulate and understandable, "tongues" remain inarticulate and unintelligible unless this utterance is transposed into articular speech. Second, tongues are addressed by or through human persons to God (14:2); prophecy is addressed to human persons from God (14:3).

                      Thiselton lists five distinct views about speaking in tongues in scholarly literature:

                      (1) angelic speech.
                      (2) miraculous power to speak foreign languages.
                      (3) liturgical or archaic utterances.
                      (4) ecstatic speech.
                      (5) mechanisms of release, especially in releasing longings or praise (On 5, see Thiselton 2000, pp. 970-88).

                      To be continued in next post...

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        1 Corinthians 12:10

                        Text: (NA27):
                        ἄλλῳ δὲ ἐνεργήματα δυνάμεων, ἄλλῳ [δὲ] προφητεία, ἄλλῳ [δὲ] διακρίσεις πνευμάτων, ἑτέρῳ γένη γλωσσῶν, ἄλλῳ δὲ ἑρμηνεία γλωσσῶν

                        Transliteration (Accordance):
                        allō̧ de energēmata dynameōn, allō̧ [de] prophēteia, allō̧ [de] diakriseis pneumatōn, heterō̧ genē glōssōn, allō̧ de hermēneia glōssōn

                        Translation (Thiselton 2006):
                        To another, actively effective deeds of power; to another, prophecy; to another, discernment of what is "of the Spirit"; to another, species of tongues; and to another, intelligible articulation of what is spoken in tongues.

                        Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                        ἐνεργήμα : a working, activity.
                        προφητεία : prophecy.
                        διάκρισις : power of discrimination.
                        γένος : a kind. See comment below.
                        γλῶσσα : tongue ; language. See comment below.
                        ἑρμηνεία : See comment below.

                        Comment (Thiselton 2006):
                        Continued from last post...
                        I have long held this last view [i.e., # (5) in last post], first publishing it in 1979. I agree with the Pentecostal writer F. D. Macchia, who, together with E. Käsemann, K. Stendahl, and G. Theissen, sees a very close parallel with the Spirit's speaking in or through a Christian "with sighs too deep for words" in Rom. 8:26-27 (Macchia, "Groans Too Deep for Words," pp. 149-73), and "Tongues and Prophecy," pp. 63-69; Theissen Psychological Aspects, pp. 304-41). This "sighing" or "groaning" in Romans is a longing for eschatological fulfillment and completion of the light of a glimpse of what God's glory can and one day will be. It combines praise and yearnings that go beyond words.

                        Insight, feeling, or longing, at the deepest level of the heart, however, needs an outlet; it needs to be "released." Here Stendahl and, in a fuller way, Theissen help us. The Holy Spirit gives the capacity to plumb the depths of the unconscious as the Spirit's gift. This is where the Holy Spirit sheds abroad the love of God ("God's love has flooded our hearts," Rom. 5:5 REB). Heart frequently includes what nowadays we call the unconscious (1 Cor. 4:4-5). Hence, as Theissen expresses it, "Glossolalia is language of the unconscious ― language capable of consciousness," which makes "unconscious depth dimensions of life accessible" (cf. Stendahl, "Glossolalia," in Paul, p. 111; and Theissen, Psychological Aspects, 106; cf, pp. 59-114 and 276-341).

                        Paul always expresses his approval of this gift but qualifies it in three ways. First, in genuine form it comes from the Spirit of God; it must not be self-generated as a counterfeit (14:4; especially as discussed by Vielhauer, Oikodomē, pp. 91-98). Second, it must not be exercised in public, but strictly only in private (14:5-25). Third, the only way in which the gift of tongues may be used for public benefit is for the speaker (the Greek text does not refer to a second person called an "interpreter") to receive the further gift of being enabled to communicate the content in articular speech (14:13, "Anyone who speaks in tongues should pray for the ability to interpret." REB).

                        To be continued...

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          1 Corinthians 12:10

                          Text: (NA27):
                          ἄλλῳ δὲ ἐνεργήματα δυνάμεων, ἄλλῳ [δὲ] προφητεία, ἄλλῳ [δὲ] διακρίσεις πνευμάτων, ἑτέρῳ γένη γλωσσῶν, ἄλλῳ δὲ ἑρμηνεία γλωσσῶν

                          Transliteration (Accordance):
                          allō̧ de energēmata dynameōn, allō̧ [de] prophēteia, allō̧ [de] diakriseis pneumatōn, heterō̧ genē glōssōn, allō̧ de hermēneia glōssōn

                          Translation (Thiselton 2006):
                          To another, actively effective deeds of power; to another, prophecy; to another, discernment of what is "of the Spirit"; to another, species of tongues; and to another, intelligible articulation of what is spoken in tongues.

                          Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                          ἐνεργήμα : a working, activity.
                          προφητεία : prophecy.
                          διάκρισις : power of discrimination.
                          γένος : a kind. See comment below.
                          γλῶσσα : tongue ; language. See comment below.
                          ἑρμηνεία : See comment below.

                          Comment (Thiselton 2006):
                          Continued from last post...
                          Intelligible articulation of tongues speech (verse 10c). Many regard this gift as separate from the gift of speaking in tongues. They suggest that whereas one person speaks in tongues, another receives the gift to "interpret" what the tongue speaker has said in intelligible speech. In favor of this long-standing view, they point out that Paul introduces each gift with the contrasting formula another: to yet "another" may refer to a contrast between one person who has only the gift of expressing released praise, while another person may have the gift of such release together with a subsequent capacity to share the experience with others in words.

                          In favor of translating hermeneia as articulation rather than interpretation is the fact that this meaning is well attested among writers contemporary with Paul. Josephus writes to his Roman readership that he longs to convey the indescribable wonders of Herod's temple, but he cannot quite "hermenuō" (or "di-ermenuō") them, that is, cannot quite fully put them into words (Jewish War 5.176, 178, and 182). More examples can be found in Thiselton, "The Interpretation of Tongues?" pp. 15-36.

                          Second, the major contrast between prophetic speech and tongues speech turns on "articulate and intelligible" versus "inarticulate and unintelligible" (especially in chapter 14). This provides the context with reference to which we have to decide whether hermenuō and hermeneia allude to "interpretation" or to "producing articulate speech."

                          Third, a pivotal verse is 14:13, which as we have noted, REB translates, "Any who speaks in tongues should pray for the ability to interpret," that is, the tongues speaker should do this. Unfortunately, the NRSV uses the phrase "unless someone interprets," but it has introduced "someone" into a Greek text from which the word (Greek τις) is absent.

                          There is only one other text in 1 Corinthians 12―14 (more specifically, in chapter 14) re which I may post as much commentary as I have with regard 12:10b-c above.

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            1 Corinthians 12:11

                            Text: (NA27):
                            πάντα δὲ ταῦτα ἐνεργεῖ τὸ ἓν καὶ τὸ αὐτὸ πνεῦμα διαιροῦν ἰδίᾳ ἑκάστῳ καθὼς βούλεται.

                            Transliteration (Accordance):
                            panta de tauta energei to hen kai to auto pneuma diairoun idia̧ hekastō̧ kathōs bouletai.

                            Translation (Thiselton 2006):
                            All these things one and the same Spirit activates, apportioning as he will to each person individually.

                            Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                            ἐνεργέω : work, activate.
                            διαιροῦν : neuter participle of διαιρέω divide, apportion.
                            ἰδίᾳ : adverbial individually.
                            βούλομαι : will.

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              1 Corinthians 12:12

                              Text: (NA27):
                              Καθάπερ γὰρ τὸ σῶμα ἕν ἐστιν καὶ μέλη πολλὰ ἔχει, πάντα δὲ τὰ μέλη τοῦ σώματος πολλὰ ὄντα ἕν ἐστιν σῶμα, οὕτως καὶ ὁ Χριστός

                              Transliteration (Accordance):
                              Kathaper gar to sōma hen estin kai melē polla echei, panta de ta melē tou sōmatos polla onta hen estin sōma, houtōs kai ho Christos

                              Translation (Thiselton 2006):
                              For just as the body is one, and has many limbs and organs, and all the limbs and organs of the body, although they are many, constitute a single body, even so this is the case with Christ.

                              Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick/BDAG, meanings in this context):
                              καθάπερ = καθώς (adverb) just as.
                              μέλος : member.
                              ὄντα : participle of εἰμί, concessive.
                              οὕτως καὶ ὁ Χριστός : so it is with Christ.

                              Comment (Thiselton 2006):
                              A strict translation of the Greek in verse 12 would render limbs and organs simply as "members." But "members" has effectively lost all of its realism in the sense of actual body parts, not least in view of such thinned-down metaphors as "members of a club" or "member of an association." Hence we need a different English rendering to describe the body parts of Christ. We translate limbs and organs (cf. "organs," REB). Paul regards the church as in a specific sense (but not in every sense) Christ's own body. This reflects the voice of the Lord on the road to Damascus: "Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting me?" (Acts 9:4; 22:7).

                              Comment

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