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Biblical Languages 301 Guidelines

This is where we come to delve into the biblical text. Theology is not our foremost thought, but we realize it is something that will be dealt with in nearly every conversation. Feel free to use the original languages to make your point (meaning Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic). This is an exegetical discussion area, so please limit topics to purely biblical ones.

This is not the section for debates between theists and atheists. While a theistic viewpoint is not required for discussion in this area, discussion does presuppose a respect for the integrity of the Biblical text (or the willingness to accept such a presupposition for discussion purposes) and a respect for the integrity of the faith of others and a lack of an agenda to undermine the faith of others.

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Daniel: Hebrew and Aramaic

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  • #31
    Daniel 1:11a (Hebrew)

    Text (BHS):
    וַיֹּאמֶר דָּנִיֵּאל אֶל־הַמֶּלְצַר

    Transliteration (Accordance):
    wayyōʾmer dānı̂ēʾl ʾel-hammelṣar

    Translation (Collins):
    Daniel said to the superintendent

    Glossary & Analysis (meanings in this context):
    וַיֹּאמֶר דָּנִיֵּאל (wayyōʾmer dānı̂ēʾl) : consecutive ו (waw) + Qal imperfect 3 m.s. of אָמַר (ʾāmar) + proper name דָּנִיֵּאל (dānı̂ēʾl) : then Daniel said.
    אֶל־הַמֶּלְצַר (ʾel-hammelṣar) : preposition אֶל (ʾel) + definite article + noun מֶלְצַר (melṣar) : to the superintendent.

    Comment


    • #32
      Daniel 1:11b (Hebrew)

      Text (BHS):
      אֲשֶׁר מִנָּה שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים

      Transliteration (Accordance):
      ʾᵃer minnā śar hassārı̂sı̂m

      Translation (Collins):
      whom the chief of the eunuchs had appointed

      Glossary & Analysis (meanings in this context):
      אֲשֶׁר מִנָּה (ʾᵃer minnā) : relative אֲשֶׁר (ʾᵃer) + Piel perfect 3 m.s. of מָנָה (mānāh) : whom ... had appointed.
      שַׂר (śar) : construct : the chief of.
      הַסָּרִיסִים (hassārı̂sı̂m) : definite article + plural of סָרִיס (sārı̂s) : the eunuchs.

      Comment


      • #33
        Daniel 1:11c (Hebrew)

        Text (BHS):
        עַל־דָּנִיֵּאל חֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה

        Transliteration (Accordance):
        ʿal-dānı̂ēʾl ḥᵃnanyāh mı̂āʾēl waʿᵃzaryāh

        Translation (Collins):
        over Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah

        Glossary & Analysis (meanings in this context):
        עַל־דָּנִיֵּאל (ʿal-dānı̂ēʾl) : preposition עַל (ʿal) + proper name דָּנִיֵּאל (dānı̂ēʾl) : over Daniel.
        חֲנַנְיָה (ḥᵃnanyāh) : Hananiah.
        מִישָׁאֵל (mı̂āʾēl ) : Mishael.
        וַעֲזַרְיָה (waʿᵃzaryāh ) : conjunction ו (waw) + proper name : and Azariah.

        Comment


        • #34
          Daniel 1:12a (Hebrew)

          Text (BHS):
          נַס־נָא אֶת־עֲבָדֶיךָ יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה

          Transliteration (Accordance):
          nas-nāʾ ʾeṯ-ʿᵃḇāḏḵā yāmı̂m ʿᵃśārāh

          Translation (Collins):
          Please test your servants for ten days.

          Glossary & Analysis (meanings in this context):
          נַס־נָא (nas-nāʾ) : Piel imperative 2 m.s. of נָסָה (nāsāh) + particle of entreaty נָא (nāʾ) : test, please.
          אֶת־עֲבָדֶיךָ (ʾeṯ-ʿᵃḇāḏḵā) : direct object indicator אֶת (ʾeṯ) + plural of עֶבֶד (ʿeḇeḏ) + pronominal 2 m.s. suffix : your servants.
          יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה (yāmı̂m ʿᵃśārāh) : plural of יוֹם (ym) + numeral עֲשָׂרָה (ʿᵃśārāh) : ten days.

          Comment


          • #35
            Daniel 1:12b (Hebrew)

            Text (BHS):
            וְיִתְּנוּ־לָנוּ מִן־הַזֵּרֹעִים וְנֹאכְלָה וּמַיִם וְנִשְׁתֶּה

            Transliteration (Accordance):
            wᵉyittᵉn-lān min-hazzērōʿı̂m wᵉnōʾḵlāh mayim wᵉniteh

            Translation (Collins):
            Let us have some vegetables to eat and some water to drink.

            Glossary & Analysis (meanings in this context):
            וְיִתְּנוּ־לָנוּ (wᵉyittᵉn-lān) : conjunction וְ (wᵉ) + Qal imperfect 3 m.p. of נָתַן (nāṯan) + preposition לְ (lᵉ) + pronominal 1 c.p. suffix : and let be given to us.
            מִן־הַזֵּרֹעִים (min-hazzērōʿı̂m) : preposition מִן (min) + definite article + plural of זֵרֹעַ (zērōaʿ) : some vegetables.
            וְנֹאכְלָה (wᵉnōʾḵlāh) : conjunction וְ (wᵉ) + Qal imperfect 1 c.p. of אָכַל (ʾāḵal) + cohortative ה (h) : to eat.
            וּמַיִם (mayim) : conjunction וּ () + noun מַיִם (mayim) : and water.
            וְנִשְׁתֶּה (wᵉniteh) : conjunction וְ (wᵉ) + Qal imperfect 1 c.p. of שָׁתָה (āṯāh) + cohortative ה (h) : to drink.

            Comment


            • #36
              Daniel 1:13a (Hebrew)

              Text (BHS):
              וְיֵרָאוּ לְפָנֶיךָ מַרְאֵינוּ

              Transliteration (Accordance):
              wᵉyērāʾ lᵉp̱ānḵā marʾn

              Translation (WEB):
              Then let our faces be looked on before you

              Glossary & Analysis (meanings in this context):
              וְיֵרָאוּ (wᵉyērāʾ) : conj. וְ (wᵉ) + Niphal imperfect 3 m.p. of רָאָה (rāʾāh) : then let ... be looked on.
              לְפָנֶיךָ (lᵉp̱ānḵā) : prep. לְ (lᵉ) + plural of פָּנֶה (pāneh) + pronominal 2 m.s. suffix : before you.
              מַרְאֵינוּ (marʾn) : noun מַרְאָה (marʾāh) + 1 c.p. suffix : our appearance.

              Comment


              • #37
                Daniel 1:13b (Hebrew)

                Text (BHS):
                וּמַרְאֵה הַיְלָדִים הָאֹכְלִים אֵת פַּתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ

                Transliteration (Accordance):
                marʾh hayᵉlāḏı̂m hāʾōḵᵉlı̂m ʾēṯ paṯbag̱ hammeleḵ

                Translation (Collins):
                and the appearance of the youths who eat the royal fare

                Glossary & Analysis (meanings in this context):
                וּמַרְאֵה (marʾh) : conj. וּ () + construct מַרְאֵה (marʾh) : and the appearance of
                הַיְלָדִים (hayᵉlāḏı̂m) : definite article + plural of יֶלֶד (yeleḏ) : the youths.
                הָאֹכְלִים (hāʾōḵᵉlı̂m) : definite article + Qal m.p. participle of אָכַל (ʾāḵal) : who eat.
                אֵת פַּתְבַּג (ʾēṯ paṯbag̱) : direct object indicator אֵת (ʾēṯ) + construct of פַתְּבָּג (p̱attᵉbāg̱) : the special food of.
                הַמֶּלֶךְ (hammeleḵ) : definite article + noun מֶלֶךְ (meleḵ) : the king.

                Comment


                • #38
                  Daniel 1:13c (Hebrew)

                  Text (BHS):
                  וְכַאֲשֶׁר תִּרְאֵה עֲשֵׂה עִם־עֲבָדֶיךָ

                  Transliteration (Accordance):
                  wᵉḵaʾᵃer tirʾh ʿᵃśh ʿim-ʿᵃḇāḏḵā

                  Translation (Collins):
                  and do with your servants according to what you see

                  Glossary & Analysis (meanings in this context):
                  וְכַאֲשֶׁר תִּרְאֵה (wᵉḵaʾᵃer tirʾh) : conj. וְ (wᵉ) + prep. כְּ (kᵉ) + relative אֲשֶׁר (ʾᵃer) + Qal imperfect 2 m.s. of רָאָה (rāʾāh) : and according to what you see.
                  עֲשֵׂה (ʿᵃśh) : Qal imperative 2 m.s. of עָשָׂה (ʿāśāh) : do.
                  עִם־עֲבָדֶיךָ (ʿim-ʿᵃḇāḏḵā) : prep. עִם (ʿim) + noun עֶבֶד (ʿeḇeḏ) + pronominal 2 m.s. suffix : with your servants.

                  Comment


                  • #39
                    Daniel 1:14a (Hebrew)

                    Text (BHS):
                    וַיִּשְׁמַע לָהֶם לַדָּבָר הַזֶּה

                    Transliteration (Accordance):
                    wayyimaʿ lāhem laddāḇār hazzeh

                    Translation (Collins):
                    He acceded to their request in this matter

                    Glossary & Analysis (meanings in this context):
                    וַיִּשְׁמַע (wayyimaʿ) : consecutive ו (waw) + Qal imperfect 3 m.p. of שָׁמַע (āmaʿ) : and he assented.
                    לָהֶם (lāhem) : prep. לְ (lᵉ) + pronominal 3 m.p. suffix : to them.
                    לַדָּבָר הַזֶּה (laddāḇār hazzeh) : prep. לְ (lᵉ) + definite article + noun דָּבָר (dāḇār) + definite article + demonstrative adjective זֶּה (zeh) : in this matter.

                    Comment


                    • #40
                      Daniel 1:14b (Hebrew)

                      Text (BHS):
                      וַיְנַסֵּם יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה

                      Transliteration (Accordance):
                      wayᵉnassēm yāmı̂m ʿᵃśārāh

                      Translation (Collins):
                      and he tested them for ten days

                      Glossary & Analysis (meanings in this context):
                      וַיְנַסֵּם (wayᵉnassēm) : consecutive ו (waw) + Piel imperfect 3 m.s. of נָסָה (nāsāh) + pronominal 3 m.p. suffix : and he tested them.
                      יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה (yāmı̂m ʿᵃśārāh) : plural of יוֹם (ym) + numeral עֲשָׂרָה (ʿᵃśārāh) : ten days.

                      Comment


                      • #41
                        Daniel 1:15a (Hebrew)

                        Text (BHS):
                        וּמִקְצָת יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה נִרְאָה מַרְאֵיהֶם טוֹב

                        Transliteration (Accordance):
                        miqṣāṯ yāmı̂m ʿᵃśārāh nirʾāh marʾhem ṭḇ

                        Translation (Collins):
                        After ten days their appearance was better

                        Glossary & Analysis (meanings in this context):
                        וּמִקְצָת (miqṣāṯ) : conj. וּ () + prep. מִן (min) + construct קְצָת (qᵉṣāṯ) : at the end of.
                        יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה (yāmı̂m ʿᵃśārāh) : plural of יוֹם (ym) + numeral עֲשָׂרָה (ʿᵃśārāh) : ten days.
                        נִרְאָה (nirʾāh) : Niphal perfect 3 m.s of רָאָה (rāʾāh) : [their appearance] was seen.
                        מַרְאֵיהֶם (marʾhem) + prep. מִן (min) + noun מַרְאָה (marʾāh) + pronominal 3 m.p. suffix : their appearance.
                        טוֹב (ṭḇ) : comparative after מִן (min) [above] : [as] better.

                        Comment


                        • #42
                          Daniel 1:15b (Hebrew)

                          Text (BHS):
                          וּבְרִיאֵי בָּשָׂר מִן־כָּל־הַיְלָדִים הָאֹכְלִים אֵת פַּתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ

                          Transliteration (Accordance):
                          ḇᵉrı̂ʾ bāśār min-kol-hayᵉlāḏı̂m hāʾōḵᵉlı̂m ʾēṯ paṯbag̱ hammeleḵ

                          Translation (Collins):
                          and they were fatter than all the youths who ate the royal fare

                          Glossary & Analysis (meanings in this context):
                          וּבְרִיאֵי (ḇᵉrı̂ʾ) : conj. וּ () + plural construct of בָּרִיא (bārı̂ʾ) : and [they were] fatter of.
                          בָּשָׂר (bāśār) : flesh.
                          מִן־כָּל (min-kol) : prep. מִן (min) + construct of כֹּל (kōl) : than all.
                          הַיְלָדִים (hayᵉlāḏı̂m) : definite article + plural of יֶלֶד (yeleḏ) : the youths.
                          הָאֹכְלִים (hāʾōḵᵉlı̂m) : definite article + Qal m.p. participle of אָכַל (ʾāḵal) : who ate.
                          אֵת פַּתְבַּג (ʾēṯ paṯbag̱) : direct object indicator אֵת (ʾēṯ) + construct of פַתְּבָּג (p̱attᵉbāg̱) : the special food of.
                          הַמֶּלֶךְ (hammeleḵ) : definite article + noun מֶלֶךְ (meleḵ) : the king.

                          Comment


                          • #43
                            Daniel 1:16a (Hebrew)

                            Text (BHS):
                            וַיְהִי הַמֶּלְצַר נֹשֵׂא אֶת־פַּתְבָּגָם

                            Transliteration (Accordance):
                            wayᵉhı̂ hammelṣar nōśēʾ ʾeṯ-paṯbāg̱ām

                            Translation (NRSV):
                            So the guard continued to withdraw their royal rations

                            Glossary & Analysis (meanings in this context):
                            וַיְהִי (wayᵉhı̂) : consecutive ו (wawı̂) + Qal imperfect 3 m.s. of הָיָה (hāyāh) : and so
                            הַמֶּלְצַר (hammelṣar) : definite article + Babylonian title מֶלְצָר (melṣar) : the overseer (HALOT).
                            נֹשֵׂא (nōśēʾ) : Qal participle of נָשָׂא (nāśāʾ) : continued to withdraw.
                            אֶת־פַּתְבָּגָם (ʾeṯ-paṯbāg̱ām) : direct object indicator + אֶת (ʾeṯ) + פַּתְבָּגָ (paṯbāg̱) + pronominal 3 m.s. suffix : their royal rations.

                            Comment


                            • #44
                              Daniel 1:16b (Hebrew)

                              Text (BHS):
                              וְיֵין מִשְׁתֵּיהֶם

                              Transliteration (Accordance):
                              wᵉyn mithem

                              Translation (NRSV):
                              and the wine they were to drink

                              Glossary & Analysis (meanings in this context):
                              וְיֵין מִשְׁתֵּיהֶם (wᵉyn mithem) : conjunction וְ (wᵉ) + construct of יַיִן (yayin) + plural of מִשְׁתֶּה (miteh) + pronominal 3 m.p. suffix : and the wine of their drinks.

                              Comment


                              • #45
                                Daniel 1:16c (Hebrew)

                                Text (BHS):
                                וְנֹתֵן לָהֶם זֵרְעֹנִים

                                Transliteration (Accordance):
                                wᵉnōṯēn lāhem zērᵉʿōnı̂m

                                Translation (Collins):
                                and give them vegetables

                                Glossary & Analysis (meanings in this context):
                                וְנֹתֵן (wᵉnōṯēn) : conj. וְ (wᵉ) + Qal participle of נָתַן (nāṯan) : and give
                                לָהֶם (lāhem) : prep. לְ (lᵉ) + pronominal 3 m.p. suffix : to them.
                                זֵרְעֹנִים (zērᵉʿōnı̂m) : : vegetables.

                                Comment

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