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This is where we come to delve into the biblical text. Theology is not our foremost thought, but we realize it is something that will be dealt with in nearly every conversation. Feel free to use the original languages to make your point (meaning Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic). This is an exegetical discussion area, so please limit topics to purely biblical ones.

This is not the section for debates between theists and atheists. While a theistic viewpoint is not required for discussion in this area, discussion does presuppose a respect for the integrity of the Biblical text (or the willingness to accept such a presupposition for discussion purposes) and a respect for the integrity of the faith of others and a lack of an agenda to undermine the faith of others.

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Daniel: Hebrew and Aramaic

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  • Daniel: Hebrew and Aramaic

    NOTICE

    Please do not post any cabala in this thread.

    ABBREVIATIONS and BIBLIOGRAPHY

    BDB: A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament with an appendix containing the Biblical Aramaic, based on the Lexicon of William Gesenius as translated by Edward Robinson; edited with constant reference to the Thesaurus of Gesenius as completed by E. Rodgers, and with authorized use of the latest German editions of Gesenius's Handwrterbuch ber das Alte Testament, by Francis Brown, S. R. Driver, and Charles A. Briggs (Oxford University Press, 1907; reprinted with corrections 1953, 1957, 1959; 1962)

    BHS: Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1977).

    Collins (1993): Daniel: A Commentary on the Book of Daniel (Hermeneia: Augsburg Fortress, 1993), by John J. Collins.

    Collins (1995): The Scepter and the Star: The Messiahs of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Other Ancient Literature (The Anchor Bible Reference Library: Doubleday, 1995), by John J. Collins.

    Collins (2008) : King and Messiah as Son of God: Divine, Human, and Angelic Messianic Figures in Biblical and Related Literature (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2008), by Adela Yarbro Collins and John J. Collins.

    Collins (undated): Cosmology and Eschatology in Jewish and Christian Apocalypticism (Brill's Scholar's List; Leiden/Boston/Kln), by Adela Yarbro Collins.

    GKC: Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, edited and enlarged by the late E. Kautzsch, second English edition revised in accordance with the 28th German edition (1909) by A. E. Cowley; 2nd English edition (Oxford University Press, 1910, reprinted from corrected sheets of the 2nd edition 1946, 1949, 1952, 1956, 1960, 1966 )

    HALOT: The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament by Ludwig Koehler and Walter Baumgartner; subsequently revised by Walter Baumgartner and Johann Jakob Stamm et al.; STUDY EDITION, two volumes, translated and edited under the supervision of M. E. J. Richardson (Leiden/Boston/Kln: Brill, 2001),

    Holladay: A Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament based upon the work of Ludwig Koehler and Walter Baumgartner (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1988), by William L. Holladay.

    IBHS: An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax (Eisenbrauns, 1990), by Bruce K. Waltke and M. O'Conner.

    Joon: A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Translated and Revised by T. Muraoka, three parts in two volumes, (Roma: Editrice Pontifico Istituto Biblico, 2005), by Paul Joon, S. J.

    MNK: A Biblical Hebrew Reference Grammar (Sheffield Academic Press, 1999, 2000, 2002), by Christo H. J. van der Merwe, Jackie A. Naud, and Jan H. Kroeze.

    Owens: Analytical Key to the Old Testament (Baker Book House, 1989), four volumes, by John Joseph Owens.

    Van Pelt: Basics of Biblical Aramaic: Complete Grammar, Lexicon, and Annotated Text, (Zondervan, 2011) by Miles V. Van Pelt.
    Last edited by John Reece; 02-01-2015, 11:08 AM.

  • #2
    Daniel 1:1 (Hebrew)

    Text (BHS):
    בִּשְׁנַת שָׁלוֹשׁ לְמַלְכוּת יְהוֹיָקִים מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה בָּא נְבוּכַדְנֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל יְרוּשָׁלִַם וַיָּצַר עָלֶיהָ

    Transliteration (Accordance):
    binaṯ āl lᵉmalḵṯ yᵉhyāqı̂m meleḵ-yᵉhḏāh bāʾ nᵉḇḵaḏneʾṣṣar meleḵ-bāḇel yᵉrālaim wayyāṣar ʿālhā

    Translation (NRSV):
    In the third year of the reign of King Jehoiakim of Judah, King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon came to Jerusalem and besieged it.

    Glossary & Analysis (meanings in this context):
    ‏‏‏‏‏בִּשְׁנַת (binaṯ) : preposition ‏‏‏‏‏בְּ (bᵉ) + construct of ‏‏‏‏‏שָׁנָה (ānāh) : in the year
    ‏‏‏‏‏שָׁלוֹשׁ (āl) : third
    ‏‏‏‏‏לְמַלְכוּת (lᵉmalḵṯ) : preposition ‏‏‏‏‏לְ (lᵉ) + construct ‏‏‏‏‏מַלְכוּת (malḵṯ) : of the reign of.
    ‏‏‏‏‏יְהוֹיָקִים (yᵉhyāqı̂m) : proper name Jehoiakim.
    ‏‏‏‏‏מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה (meleḵ-yᵉhḏāh) : construct ‏‏‏‏‏מֶלֶךְ (meleḵ) + proper name ‏‏‏‏‏יְהוּדָה (yᵉhḏāh) : king of Judah.
    ‏‏‏‏‏בָּא (bāʾ) : Qal perfect 3 m.s. of ‏‏‏‏‏בּוֹא () : came.
    ‏‏‏‏‏נְבוּכַדְנֶאצַּר (nᵉḇḵaḏneʾṣṣar) : proper name : Nebuchadnezzar.
    ‏‏‏‏‏מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל (meleḵ-bāḇel) : construct ‏‏‏‏‏מֶלֶךְ (meleḵ) + proper name ‏‏‏‏‏בָּבֶל (bāḇel) : king of Babylon.
    ‏‏‏‏‏יְרוּשָׁלִַם (yᵉrālaim) : proper name : to Jerusalem.
    ‏‏‏‏‏וַיָּצַר (wayyāṣar) : consecutive ‏‏‏‏‏ו (waw) + Qal imperfect m.s. of ‏‏‏‏‏צוּר (ṣūr) : and besieged.
    ‏‏‏‏‏עָלֶיהָ (ʿālhā) : preposition ‏‏‏‏‏עַל (ʿal) + 3 feminine singular suffix : it.

    Comment


    • #3
      Daniel 1:2a (Hebrew)

      Text (BHS):
      וַיִּתֵּן אֲדֹנָי בְּיָדוֹ אֶת־יְהוֹיָקִים מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה

      Transliteration (Accordance):
      wayyittēn ʾᵃḏōnāy bᵉyāḏ ʾeṯ-yᵉhyāqı̂m meleḵ-yᵉhḏāh

      Translation (Collins):
      The Lord gave into his hand Jehoiakim, king of Judah

      Glossary & Analysis (meanings in this context):
      ‏‏‏‏‏אֲדֹנָי (ʾᵃḏōnāy) : the Lord
      ‏‏‏‏‏וַיִּתֵּן (wayyittēn) : consecutive ‏‏‏‏‏ו (waw) + Qal imperfect 3 m.s. of ‏‏‏‏‏נָתַן (nāṯan) : gave.
      ‏‏‏‏‏בְּיָדוֹ (bᵉyāḏ) : preposition ‏‏‏‏‏בְּ (bᵉ) + noun ‏‏‏‏‏יָד (yāḏ) + pronominal 3 m.s. suffix : into his hand.
      ‏‏‏‏‏אֶת (ʾeṯ) : direct object indicator.
      ‏‏‏‏‏יְהוֹיָקִים (yᵉhyāqı̂m) : proper name Jehoiakim.
      ‏‏‏‏‏מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה (meleḵ-yᵉhḏāh) : construct ‏‏‏‏‏מֶלֶךְ (meleḵ) + proper name ‏‏‏‏‏יְהוּדָה (yᵉhḏāh) : king of Judah.

      Comment


      • #4
        Daniel 1:2b (Hebrew)

        Text (BHS):
        וּמִקְצָת כְּלֵי בֵית־הָאֱלֹהִים

        Transliteration (Accordance):
        miqṣāṯ kᵉl ḇṯ-hāʾᵉlōhı̂m

        Translation (Collins):
        and some of the vessels of the temple of God

        Glossary & Analysis (meanings in this context):
        ‏‏‏‏‏וּמִקְצָת (miqṣāṯ) : conjunction ‏‏‏‏‏וּ () + preposition ‏‏‏‏‏מִן (min) + construct ‏‏‏‏‏קְצָת (qᵉṣāṯ) : and some of.
        ‏‏‏‏‏כְּלֵי (kᵉl) : plural construct of ‏‏‏‏‏כְּלִי (ḵᵉlı̂) : the vessels of.
        ‏‏‏‏‏בֵית־הָאֱלֹהִים (ḇṯ-hāʾᵉlōhı̂m) : construct of ‏‏‏‏‏בַּיִת (ḇayiṯ) + definite article הַ (ha) + אֱלֹהִים (ʾᵉlōhı̂m) : the temple of God.

        Comment


        • #5
          Daniel 1:2c (Hebrew)

          Text (BHS):
          וַיְבִיאֵם אֶרֶץ־שִׁנְעָר בֵּית אֱלֹהָיו

          Transliteration (Accordance):
          wayᵉḇı̂ʾēm ʾereṣ-inʿār bṯ ʾᵉlōhāyw

          Translation (Collins):
          and he brought them to the land of Shinar, to the temple of his god

          Glossary & Analysis (meanings in this context):
          ‏‏‏‏‏וַיְבִיאֵם (wayᵉḇı̂ʾēm) : consecutive waw + Hiphil imperfect of ‏‏‏‏‏בּוֹא () + pronominal 3 m.p. suffix : and he brought them.
          ‏‏‏‏‏אֶרֶץ־שִׁנְעָר (ʾereṣ-inʿār) : construct ‏‏‏‏‏אֶרֶץ (ʾereṣ) + proper name ‏‏‏‏‏שִׁנְעָר (inʿār) : to the land of Shinar [Old Greek = Babylon].
          ‏‏‏‏‏בֵּית אֱלֹהָיו (bṯ ʾᵉlōhāyw) : construct of ‏‏‏‏‏בַּיִת (bayiṯ) + ‏‏‏‏‏אֱלֹהִים (ʾᵉlōhı̂m) + 3 m.s. suffix : to the temple of his god.

          Comment


          • #6
            Daniel 1:2d (Hebrew)

            Text (BHS):
            וְאֶת־הַכֵּלִים הֵבִיא בֵּית אוֹצַר אֱלֹהָיו

            Transliteration (Accordance):
            wᵉʾeṯ-hakkēlı̂m hēḇı̂ʾ bṯ ʾṣar ʾᵉlōhāyw

            Translation (Collins):
            and he deposited the vessels in the treasury of his god.

            Glossary & Analysis (meanings in this context):
            ‏‏‏‏‏וְאֶת (wᵉʾeṯ) : conj. ‏‏‏‏‏וְ (wᵉ) + direct object indicator ‏‏‏‏‏אֶת (ʾeṯ) : and.
            ‏‏‏‏‏הַכֵּלִים (hakkēlı̂m) : definite article ‏‏‏‏‏הַ (ha) + plural of ‏‏‏‏‏כְּלִי (kᵉlı̂) : the vessels.
            ‏‏‏‏‏הֵבִיא (hēḇı̂ʾ) : Hiphil perfect 3 m.s. of ‏‏‏‏‏בּוֹא () : he placed, put, deposited.
            ‏‏‏‏‏בֵּית אוֹצַר (bṯ ʾṣar) : construct of ‏‏‏‏‏בַּיִת (bayiṯ) + construct ‏‏‏‏‏אוֹצַר (ʾṣar) : in the treasury/store house of
            ‏‏‏‏‏אֱלֹהָיו (ʾᵉlōhāyw) : ‏‏‏‏‏אֱלֹהִים (ʾᵉlōhı̂m) + pronominal 3 m.s. suffix : his god.

            Comment


            • #7
              Daniel 1:3a (Hebrew)

              Text (BHS):
              וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְאַשְׁפְּנַז רַב סָרִיסָיו לְהָבִיא מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל

              Transliteration (Accordance):
              wayyōʾmer hammeleḵ lᵉʾapᵉnaz raḇ sārı̂sāyw lᵉhāḇı̂ʾ mibbᵉn yiśrāʾēl

              Translation (NRSV):
              Then the king commanded his palace master Ashpenaz to bring some of the Israelites

              Glossary & Analysis (meanings in this context):


              ‏‏‏‏‏וַיֹּאמֶר (wayyōʾmer) : consecutive waw + Qal imperfect 3 m.s. of ‏‏‏‏‏אָמַר (ʾāmar) : then ... said.
              ‏‏‏‏‏הַמֶּלֶךְ (hammeleḵ) : definite article ‏‏‏‏‏הַ (ha) + noun ‏‏‏‏‏מֶלֶךְ (meleḵ) : the king.
              ‏‏‏‏‏לְאַשְׁפְּנַז (lᵉʾapᵉnaz) : prep. ‏‏‏‏‏לְ (lᵉ) + proper name ‏‏‏‏‏אַשְׁפְּנַז (ʾapᵉnaz) : to Ashpenaz.
              ‏‏‏‏‏רַב סָרִיסָיו (raḇ sārı̂sāyw) : construct ‏‏‏‏‏רַב (raḇ) + plural of ‏‏‏‏‏סָרִיס (sārı̂s) + pronominal 3 m.s. suffix : chief of his court officials.
              ‏‏‏‏‏לְהָבִיא (lᵉhāḇı̂ʾ) : preposition ‏‏‏‏‏לְ (lᵉ) + Hiphil infinitive construct of ‏‏‏‏‏בּוֹא () : to bring in.
              ‏‏‏‏‏מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל (mibbᵉn yiśrāʾēl) : prep. ‏‏‏‏‏מִן (min) + plural construct of ‏‏‏‏‏בֵּן (bēn) + proper name ‏‏‏‏‏יִשְׂרָאֵל (yiśrāʾēl) : out of the sons of Israel.

              Comment


              • #8
                Daniel 1:3b (Hebrew)

                Text (BHS):
                וּמִזֶּרַע הַמְּלוּכָה וּמִן־הַפַּרְתְּמִים

                Transliteration (Accordance):
                mizzeraʿ hammᵉlḵāh min-happartᵉmı̂m

                Translation (Collins):
                and some of the royal line and some of the nobility

                Glossary & Analysis (meanings in this context):
                ‏‏‏‏‏וּמִזֶּרַע (mizzeraʿ) : conj. ‏‏‏‏‏וּ (ʿ) + prep. ‏‏‏‏‏מִן (min) + construct ‏‏‏‏‏זֶרַע (zeraʿ) : and some of the seed/line.
                ‏‏‏‏‏הַמְּלוּכָה (hammᵉlḵāh) : definite article ‏‏‏‏‏הַ (ha) + noun ‏‏‏‏‏מְּלוּכָה (mᵉlḵāh) : the royal.
                ‏‏‏‏‏וּמִן־הַפַּרְתְּמִים (min-happartᵉmı̂m) : conj. ‏‏‏‏‏וּ () + prep. ‏‏‏‏‏מִן (min) + def. art. הַ (ha) + plural noun פַּרְתְּמִים (partᵉmı̂m) : and some of the nobility.

                Comment


                • #9
                  Daniel 1:4a (Hebrew)

                  Text (BHS):
                  יְלָדִים אֲשֶׁר אֵין־בָּהֶם כָּל־מְאוּם

                  Transliteration (Accordance):
                  yᵉlāḏı̂m ʾᵃer ʾn-bāhem kol-mᵉʾm

                  Translation (Collins):
                  youths without blemish

                  Glossary & Analysis (meanings in this context):
                  ‏‏‏‏‏יְלָדִים (yᵉlāḏı̂m) : plural of ‏‏‏‏‏יֶלֶד (yeleḏ) : youth.
                  ‏‏‏‏‏אֲשֶׁר אֵין־בָּהֶם (ʾᵃer ʾn-bāhem) : relative ‏‏‏‏‏אֲשֶׁר (ʾᵃer) + substantive construct אֵין (ʾn) + prep. בָּ (bā-) + pronominal 3 m.p. suffix הֶם (-hem) : without.
                  ‏‏‏‏‏כָּל־מְאוּם (kol-mᵉʾm) : construct of ‏‏‏‏‏כֹּל (kōl) + noun ‏‏‏‏‏מאוּם (mʾm) : any physical defect (BDB, 548).

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Daniel 1:4b (Hebrew)

                    Text (BHS):
                    וְטוֹבֵי מַרְאֶה

                    Transliteration (Accordance):
                    wᵉṭḇ marʾeh

                    Translation (NRSV):
                    and handsome

                    Glossary & Analysis (meanings in this context):
                    ‏‏‏‏‏וְטוֹבֵי מַרְאֶה (wᵉṭḇ marʾeh) : conjunction ‏‏‏‏‏וְ (wᵉ) + plural construct of ‏‏‏‏‏טוֹב (ṭḇ) + מַרְאֶה (marʾeh) : and good of appearance.

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      Daniel 1:4c (Hebrew)

                      Text (BHS):
                      וּמַשְׂכִּילִים בְּכָל־חָכְמָה

                      Transliteration (Accordance):
                      maśkı̂lı̂m bᵉḵol-ḥoḵmh

                      Translation (Collins):
                      proficient in all wisdom

                      Glossary & Analysis (meanings in this context):
                      ‏‏‏‏‏וְוּמַשְׂכִּילִים (maśkı̂lı̂m) : conjunction ‏‏‏‏‏וְ () + Hiphil m.p. participle of ‏‏‏‏‏שָׂכַל (śāḵal) : and having insight (BDB).
                      ‏‏‏‏‏בְּכָל־חָכְמָה (bᵉḵol-ḥoḵmh) : prep. ‏‏‏‏‏בְּ (bᵉ) + construct of ‏‏‏‏‏כֹּל (kōl) + חָכְמָה (ḥoḵmh) : in all wisdom.

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Daniel 1:4d (Hebrew)

                        Text (BHS):
                        וְיֹדְעֵי דַעַת

                        Transliteration (Accordance):
                        wᵉyōḏᵉʿ ḏaʿaṯ

                        Translation (Collins):
                        well-informed*
                        *Old Greek, γραμματικούς, gives their expertise a more literary character.

                        Glossary & Analysis (meanings in this context):
                        ‏‏‏‏‏וְיֹדְעֵי דַעַת (wᵉyōḏᵉʿ ḏaʿaṯ) : conjunction ‏‏‏‏‏וְ (wᵉ) + Qal m.p. participle construct of ‏‏‏‏‏יָדַע (yāḏaʿ) + noun דַעַת (ḏaʿaṯ) : and knowing knowledge.

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          Daniel 1:4e (Hebrew)

                          Text (BHS):
                          וּמְבִינֵי מַדָּע

                          Transliteration (Accordance):
                          mᵉḇı̂n maddāʿ

                          Translation (TNIV):
                          quick to understand

                          Glossary & Analysis (meanings in this context):
                          וּמְבִינֵי מַדָּע (mᵉḇı̂n maddāʿ) : conjunction וּ () + Hiphil m.p. participle construct of בִּין (bı̂n) + מַדָּע (maddāʿ) : able to understand, i.e. old enough (BDB).

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            Daniel 1:4f (Hebrew)

                            Text (BHS):
                            וַאֲשֶׁר כֹּחַ בָּהֶם לַעֲמֹד בְּהֵיכַל הַמֶּלֶךְ

                            Transliteration (Accordance):
                            waʾᵃer kōaḥ bāhem laʿᵃmōḏ bᵉhḵal hammeleḵ

                            Translation (Collins):
                            who were capable of serving in the palace of the king

                            Glossary & Analysis (meanings in this context):
                            וַאֲשֶׁר כֹּחַ בָּהֶם (waʾᵃer kōaḥ bāhem) : conj. וַ (wᵉ) + relative אֲשֶׁר (ʾᵃer) + noun כֹּחַ (kōaḥ) + prep. בְּ (bᵉ) + 3 m.p. suffix : and who were competent.
                            לַעֲמֹד (laʿᵃmōḏ) : prep. לְ (lᵉ) + Qal infinitive construct of עָמַד (ʿāmaḏ) : to serve.
                            בְּהֵיכַל (bᵉhḵal) : prep. בְּ (bᵉ) + construct הֵיכַל (hḵal) : in the palace of.
                            הַמֶּלֶךְ (hammeleḵ) : definite article הַ (ha) + noun מֶּלֶךְ (meleḵ) : the king.

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              Daniel 1:4g (Hebrew)

                              Text (BHS):
                              וּלֲלַמְּדָם סֵפֶר וּלְשׁוֹן כַּשְׂדִּים

                              Transliteration (Accordance):
                              lᵃlammᵉḏām sēp̱er lᵉn kaśdı̂m

                              Translation (NRSV):
                              they were to be taught the literature and language of the Chaldeans.

                              Glossary & Analysis (meanings in this context):
                              וּלֲלַמְּדָם (lᵃlammᵉḏām) : conj. וּ () + prep. לְ (lᵉ) + Piel infinitive construct of לָמַד (lāmaḏ) + 3 m.p. suffix : and to teach them.
                              סֵפֶר (sēp̱er) : absolute genitive (GKC 128aN) : the writing (of).
                              וּלְשׁוֹן (lᵉn) : conj. וּ () + construct of לָשׁוֹן (lān) : and language of.
                              כַּשְׂדִּים (kaśdı̂m) : the Chaldeans.

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