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Transitional snake had four legs

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  • Transitional snake had four legs

    Here is the Abstract just published in the science journal Science:

    Source: A four-legged snake from the Early Cretaceous of Gondwana

    Snakes are a remarkably diverse and successful group today, but their evolutionary origins are obscure. The discovery of snakes with two legs has shed light on the transition from lizards to snakes, but no snake has been described with four limbs, and the ecology of early snakes is poorly known. We describe a four-limbed snake from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian) Crato Formation of Brazil. The snake has a serpentiform body plan with an elongate trunk, short tail, and large ventral scales suggesting characteristic serpentine locomotion, yet retains small prehensile limbs. Skull and body proportions as well as reduced neural spines indicate fossorial adaptation, suggesting that snakes evolved from burrowing rather than marine ancestors. Hooked teeth, an intramandibular joint, a flexible spine capable of constricting prey, and the presence of vertebrate remains in the guts indicate that this species preyed on vertebrates and that snakes made the transition to carnivory early in their history. The structure of the limbs suggests that they were adapted for grasping, either to seize prey or as claspers during mating. Together with a diverse fauna of basal snakes from the Cretaceous of South America, Africa, and India, this snake suggests that crown Serpentes originated in Gondwana.

    © Copyright Original Source




    Tetrapodophis amplectus, as this new discovery was named and literally means "four-legged snake" possessed (as the name states) four legs which ended in five relatively long digits.

    The specimen was identified as being a juvenile and was very small, measuring just 200 mm (a little over 7.8") long. The forelimbs were only 10 mm (just over ⅓") long with feet measuring 5 mm in length and the hindlimbs and feet were slightly larger. Being a juvenile it is of course possible that it could have grown much larger.

    The researchers think that it is unlikely that Tetrapodophis used its feet for walking but rather used them to help hold onto a partner while mating, or could have been used to grasp its prey (that it likely constricted), in that they were very specialized for grasping.

    It is possible that hey could also have assisted them in burrowing. The low spines on the vertebrae and its tail is suggestive of it having descended from burrowing creatures.

    The researchers were able to conclusively determine that Tetrapodophis was definitely a snake and not some other reptile. For instance, the fossil showed evidence that the creature possessed a single row of belly scales which is considered by many experts to be the signature feature of a snake and is still seen on snakes today.

    The fossilized skeleton had several other classic snake features including an elongated body, and not a long tail, along with an extremely flexible vertebrae column and long braincase. Further, the direction of the teeth as well as the pattern of the teeth (which included fangs), short snout and the bones of the mandible that was flexible allowing it to swallow large prey are all snake-like.

    Jacques Gauthier of the Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale University, who was not involved with the study, also points to "the bony supports in the pelvis for lymph hearts to pump blood back to the heart" as being "consistent with being a snake."

    Interestingly, the fossilized snake also had the remains of its last meal still preserved in its stomach, including some bone fragments that the researchers think probably were from a salamander. Regardless of what its prey was this reveals that snakes were carnivorous much earlier in their history than had previously been thought.

    So now we can now add the 120 myo (Early Cretaceous) snake from northeastern Brazil to several other examples of transitional snakes that only possessed two legs and are from later time periods. In fact the lead author, David M. Martill of the School of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of Portsmouth in the U.K., said that Tetrapodophis is "about 20 million years older than any other fossil snake."

    For instance, in 2012 more fossilized material was discovered for a snake that researchers previously only knew from a few vertebrae. This snake Coniophis precedens lived roughly 70 mya (Late Cretaceous) in what is now eastern Wyoming and Montana.

    Its physique indicates that Coniophis lived by burrowing and was not very big (70cm or a little over 2' long). Coniophis is a transitional snake in that it possessed a snake-like body and a lizard-like head. Further, the shape of the skull is intermediate between that of the lizards and snakes seen today as well. Hence we have an excellent example of a transitional between lizards and modern snakes.

    In contrast with snakes around today in Coniophis the maxilla is firmly fixed to the skull meaning that its jaws remained fixed which limited the size of its prey. Fully evolved snakes have a kinetic skull with jaws that unhinge, allowing many species to eat prey larger than themselves. Also, the maxilla dominated the premaxilla unlike any other known snake.

    IOW, it moved like a snake but didn't eat like one.

    While the jaw was more like that found in other lizards, the shape of the teeth (tall, slim, cylindrical and curved backward) and their implantation (sit in shallow pits, bounded by bone ridges) are snake-like.

    Coniophis wasn't venomous and all indications point to that particular trait evolving after the end of the Cretaceous.
    So all this means that following the evolution of a serpentine body and carnivory, snakes evolved a highly specialized, kinetic skull. This provided them with a competitive advantage that contributed to a major adaptive radiation in the Early Cretaceous and eventually led to their becoming the most diverse lizard group today.

    It should be noted that while Coniophis is the most primitive snake known it isn't the oldest. It was probably what is called a "living fossil" in its day.

    Several older snakes reveal that they evolved from lizards with legs.

    A number of ancient extinct snakes from the Mid Cretaceous such as Eupodophis, Pachyrhachis and Haasiophis had hind limbs. The fossilized remains of the hind limb on Eupodophis descouensi can clearly be seen here. The other two are supposed to have even more prominent legs (with some of the bones from the feet of Haasiophis being recovered).

    There was also Najash rionegrina, which is slightly older though still from the Mid Cretaceous, that possessed fully functional hip bones "and the robust backbone vertebrae and rear legs of the snake were adapted to a burrowing subterranean environment."



    A couple photos:



    Hat tip to inertia at CARM smiley hat tip.gif

    I'm always still in trouble again

    "You're by far the worst poster on TWeb" and "TWeb's biggest liar" --starlight (the guy who says Stalin was a right-winger)
    "Of course, human life begins at fertilization that’s not the argument." --Tassman

  • #2
    Originally posted by rogue06 View Post
    Here is the Abstract just published in the science journal Science:

    Source: A four-legged snake from the Early Cretaceous of Gondwana

    Snakes are a remarkably diverse and successful group today, but their evolutionary origins are obscure. The discovery of snakes with two legs has shed light on the transition from lizards to snakes, but no snake has been described with four limbs, and the ecology of early snakes is poorly known. We describe a four-limbed snake from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian) Crato Formation of Brazil. The snake has a serpentiform body plan with an elongate trunk, short tail, and large ventral scales suggesting characteristic serpentine locomotion, yet retains small prehensile limbs. Skull and body proportions as well as reduced neural spines indicate fossorial adaptation, suggesting that snakes evolved from burrowing rather than marine ancestors. Hooked teeth, an intramandibular joint, a flexible spine capable of constricting prey, and the presence of vertebrate remains in the guts indicate that this species preyed on vertebrates and that snakes made the transition to carnivory early in their history. The structure of the limbs suggests that they were adapted for grasping, either to seize prey or as claspers during mating. Together with a diverse fauna of basal snakes from the Cretaceous of South America, Africa, and India, this snake suggests that crown Serpentes originated in Gondwana.

    © Copyright Original Source




    Tetrapodophis amplectus, as this new discovery was named and literally means "four-legged snake" possessed (as the name states) four legs which ended in five relatively long digits.

    The specimen was identified as being a juvenile and was very small, measuring just 200 mm (a little over 7.8") long. The forelimbs were only 10 mm (just over ⅓") long with feet measuring 5 mm in length and the hindlimbs and feet were slightly larger. Being a juvenile it is of course possible that it could have grown much larger.

    The researchers think that it is unlikely that Tetrapodophis used its feet for walking but rather used them to help hold onto a partner while mating, or could have been used to grasp its prey (that it likely constricted), in that they were very specialized for grasping.

    It is possible that hey could also have assisted them in burrowing. The low spines on the vertebrae and its tail is suggestive of it having descended from burrowing creatures.

    The researchers were able to conclusively determine that Tetrapodophis was definitely a snake and not some other reptile. For instance, the fossil showed evidence that the creature possessed a single row of belly scales which is considered by many experts to be the signature feature of a snake and is still seen on snakes today.

    The fossilized skeleton had several other classic snake features including an elongated body, and not a long tail, along with an extremely flexible vertebrae column and long braincase. Further, the direction of the teeth as well as the pattern of the teeth (which included fangs), short snout and the bones of the mandible that was flexible allowing it to swallow large prey are all snake-like.

    Jacques Gauthier of the Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale University, who was not involved with the study, also points to "the bony supports in the pelvis for lymph hearts to pump blood back to the heart" as being "consistent with being a snake."

    Interestingly, the fossilized snake also had the remains of its last meal still preserved in its stomach, including some bone fragments that the researchers think probably were from a salamander. Regardless of what its prey was this reveals that snakes were carnivorous much earlier in their history than had previously been thought.

    So now we can now add the 120 myo (Early Cretaceous) snake from northeastern Brazil to several other examples of transitional snakes that only possessed two legs and are from later time periods. In fact the lead author, David M. Martill of the School of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of Portsmouth in the U.K., said that Tetrapodophis is "about 20 million years older than any other fossil snake."

    For instance, in 2012 more fossilized material was discovered for a snake that researchers previously only knew from a few vertebrae. This snake Coniophis precedens lived roughly 70 mya (Late Cretaceous) in what is now eastern Wyoming and Montana.

    Its physique indicates that Coniophis lived by burrowing and was not very big (70cm or a little over 2' long). Coniophis is a transitional snake in that it possessed a snake-like body and a lizard-like head. Further, the shape of the skull is intermediate between that of the lizards and snakes seen today as well. Hence we have an excellent example of a transitional between lizards and modern snakes.

    In contrast with snakes around today in Coniophis the maxilla is firmly fixed to the skull meaning that its jaws remained fixed which limited the size of its prey. Fully evolved snakes have a kinetic skull with jaws that unhinge, allowing many species to eat prey larger than themselves. Also, the maxilla dominated the premaxilla unlike any other known snake.

    IOW, it moved like a snake but didn't eat like one.

    While the jaw was more like that found in other lizards, the shape of the teeth (tall, slim, cylindrical and curved backward) and their implantation (sit in shallow pits, bounded by bone ridges) are snake-like.

    Coniophis wasn't venomous and all indications point to that particular trait evolving after the end of the Cretaceous.
    So all this means that following the evolution of a serpentine body and carnivory, snakes evolved a highly specialized, kinetic skull. This provided them with a competitive advantage that contributed to a major adaptive radiation in the Early Cretaceous and eventually led to their becoming the most diverse lizard group today.

    It should be noted that while Coniophis is the most primitive snake known it isn't the oldest. It was probably what is called a "living fossil" in its day.

    Several older snakes reveal that they evolved from lizards with legs.

    A number of ancient extinct snakes from the Mid Cretaceous such as Eupodophis, Pachyrhachis and Haasiophis had hind limbs. The fossilized remains of the hind limb on Eupodophis descouensi can clearly be seen here. The other two are supposed to have even more prominent legs (with some of the bones from the feet of Haasiophis being recovered).

    There was also Najash rionegrina, which is slightly older though still from the Mid Cretaceous, that possessed fully functional hip bones "and the robust backbone vertebrae and rear legs of the snake were adapted to a burrowing subterranean environment."



    A couple photos:

    [ATTACH=CONFIG]8187[/ATTACH]

    [ATTACH=CONFIG]8188[/ATTACH]

    [ATTACH=CONFIG]8189[/ATTACH]


    Hat tip to inertia at CARM [ATTACH=CONFIG]8190[/ATTACH]
    Thank you for the reference and the neat pictures!
    Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
    Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
    But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

    go with the flow the river knows . . .

    Frank

    I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

    Comment


    • #3
      Originally posted by rogue06 View Post
      Here is the Abstract just published in the science journal Science:

      [cite=A four-legged snake from the Early Cretaceous of Gondwana]Snakes are a remarkably diverse and successful group today, but their evolutionary origins are obscure. The discovery of snakes with two legs has shed light on the transition from lizards to snakes, but no snake has been described with four limbs, and the ecology of early snakes is poorly known.
      And the LORD God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life
      Atheism is the cult of death, the death of hope. The universe is doomed, you are doomed, the only thing that remains is to await your execution...

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jbnueb2OI4o&t=3s

      Comment


      • #4
        Originally posted by seer View Post
        And the LORD God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life
        Interestingly the remains of one of the two-legged snakes mentioned, Eupodophis descouensi (although I merely mentioned it by its species name), was found in limestone in Lebanon.


        I'm always still in trouble again

        "You're by far the worst poster on TWeb" and "TWeb's biggest liar" --starlight (the guy who says Stalin was a right-winger)
        "Of course, human life begins at fertilization that’s not the argument." --Tassman

        Comment


        • #5
          Originally posted by shunyadragon View Post
          Thank you for the reference and the neat pictures!
          You seriously had to quote his entire post just to say that?

          Comment


          • #6
            Originally posted by Leonhard View Post
            You seriously had to quote his entire post just to say that?
            I know shunny can be difficult but is it actually necessary to take a jab at him like that?

            Comment


            • #7
              Originally posted by seer View Post
              And the LORD God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life
              Poor serpents. It must suck having your sapience and ability to walk 'n' talk taken away from you just 'cause some supernatural boogeyman decided to wear a Kaa costume to work that day on November 23, 4004 BC.
              Last edited by Duragizer; 07-24-2015, 10:35 PM.
              "When the Western world accepted Christianity, Caesar conquered; and the received text of Western theology was edited by his lawyers…. The brief Galilean vision of humility flickered throughout the ages, uncertainly…. But the deeper idolatry, of the fashioning of God in the image of the Egyptian, Persian, and Roman imperial rulers, was retained. The Church gave unto God the attributes which belonged exclusively to Caesar."

              — Alfred North Whitehead

              Comment


              • #8
                Imagine if Satan had taken the form of a cow
                "Some people feel guilty about their anxieties and regard them as a defect of faith but they are afflictions, not sins. Like all afflictions, they are, if we can so take them, our share in the passion of Christ." - That Guy Everyone Quotes

                Comment


                • #9
                  Originally posted by hamster View Post
                  Imagine if Satan had taken the form of a cow
                  ground beef?
                  ~Formerly known as Chrawnus~

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Originally posted by seer View Post
                    And the LORD God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life
                    Just love natural history!
                    “He felt that his whole life was a kind of dream and he sometimes wondered whose it was and whether they were enjoying it.” - Douglas Adams.

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      Originally posted by rogue06 View Post
                      Here is the Abstract just published in the science journal Science:

                      Source: A four-legged snake from the Early Cretaceous of Gondwana

                      Snakes are a remarkably diverse and successful group today, but their evolutionary origins are obscure. The discovery of snakes with two legs has shed light on the transition from lizards to snakes, but no snake has been described with four limbs, and the ecology of early snakes is poorly known. We describe a four-limbed snake from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian) Crato Formation of Brazil. The snake has a serpentiform body plan with an elongate trunk, short tail, and large ventral scales suggesting characteristic serpentine locomotion, yet retains small prehensile limbs. Skull and body proportions as well as reduced neural spines indicate fossorial adaptation, suggesting that snakes evolved from burrowing rather than marine ancestors. Hooked teeth, an intramandibular joint, a flexible spine capable of constricting prey, and the presence of vertebrate remains in the guts indicate that this species preyed on vertebrates and that snakes made the transition to carnivory early in their history. The structure of the limbs suggests that they were adapted for grasping, either to seize prey or as claspers during mating. Together with a diverse fauna of basal snakes from the Cretaceous of South America, Africa, and India, this snake suggests that crown Serpentes originated in Gondwana.

                      © Copyright Original Source




                      Tetrapodophis amplectus, as this new discovery was named and literally means "four-legged snake" possessed (as the name states) four legs which ended in five relatively long digits.

                      The specimen was identified as being a juvenile and was very small, measuring just 200 mm (a little over 7.8") long. The forelimbs were only 10 mm (just over ⅓") long with feet measuring 5 mm in length and the hindlimbs and feet were slightly larger. Being a juvenile it is of course possible that it could have grown much larger.

                      The researchers think that it is unlikely that Tetrapodophis used its feet for walking but rather used them to help hold onto a partner while mating, or could have been used to grasp its prey (that it likely constricted), in that they were very specialized for grasping.

                      It is possible that hey could also have assisted them in burrowing. The low spines on the vertebrae and its tail is suggestive of it having descended from burrowing creatures.

                      The researchers were able to conclusively determine that Tetrapodophis was definitely a snake and not some other reptile. For instance, the fossil showed evidence that the creature possessed a single row of belly scales which is considered by many experts to be the signature feature of a snake and is still seen on snakes today.

                      The fossilized skeleton had several other classic snake features including an elongated body, and not a long tail, along with an extremely flexible vertebrae column and long braincase. Further, the direction of the teeth as well as the pattern of the teeth (which included fangs), short snout and the bones of the mandible that was flexible allowing it to swallow large prey are all snake-like.

                      Jacques Gauthier of the Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale University, who was not involved with the study, also points to "the bony supports in the pelvis for lymph hearts to pump blood back to the heart" as being "consistent with being a snake."

                      Interestingly, the fossilized snake also had the remains of its last meal still preserved in its stomach, including some bone fragments that the researchers think probably were from a salamander. Regardless of what its prey was this reveals that snakes were carnivorous much earlier in their history than had previously been thought.

                      So now we can now add the 120 myo (Early Cretaceous) snake from northeastern Brazil to several other examples of transitional snakes that only possessed two legs and are from later time periods. In fact the lead author, David M. Martill of the School of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of Portsmouth in the U.K., said that Tetrapodophis is "about 20 million years older than any other fossil snake."

                      For instance, in 2012 more fossilized material was discovered for a snake that researchers previously only knew from a few vertebrae. This snake Coniophis precedens lived roughly 70 mya (Late Cretaceous) in what is now eastern Wyoming and Montana.

                      Its physique indicates that Coniophis lived by burrowing and was not very big (70cm or a little over 2' long). Coniophis is a transitional snake in that it possessed a snake-like body and a lizard-like head. Further, the shape of the skull is intermediate between that of the lizards and snakes seen today as well. Hence we have an excellent example of a transitional between lizards and modern snakes.

                      In contrast with snakes around today in Coniophis the maxilla is firmly fixed to the skull meaning that its jaws remained fixed which limited the size of its prey. Fully evolved snakes have a kinetic skull with jaws that unhinge, allowing many species to eat prey larger than themselves. Also, the maxilla dominated the premaxilla unlike any other known snake.

                      IOW, it moved like a snake but didn't eat like one.

                      While the jaw was more like that found in other lizards, the shape of the teeth (tall, slim, cylindrical and curved backward) and their implantation (sit in shallow pits, bounded by bone ridges) are snake-like.

                      Coniophis wasn't venomous and all indications point to that particular trait evolving after the end of the Cretaceous.
                      So all this means that following the evolution of a serpentine body and carnivory, snakes evolved a highly specialized, kinetic skull. This provided them with a competitive advantage that contributed to a major adaptive radiation in the Early Cretaceous and eventually led to their becoming the most diverse lizard group today.

                      It should be noted that while Coniophis is the most primitive snake known it isn't the oldest. It was probably what is called a "living fossil" in its day.

                      Several older snakes reveal that they evolved from lizards with legs.

                      A number of ancient extinct snakes from the Mid Cretaceous such as Eupodophis, Pachyrhachis and Haasiophis had hind limbs. The fossilized remains of the hind limb on Eupodophis descouensi can clearly be seen here. The other two are supposed to have even more prominent legs (with some of the bones from the feet of Haasiophis being recovered).

                      There was also Najash rionegrina, which is slightly older though still from the Mid Cretaceous, that possessed fully functional hip bones "and the robust backbone vertebrae and rear legs of the snake were adapted to a burrowing subterranean environment."



                      A couple photos:

                      [ATTACH=CONFIG]8187[/ATTACH]

                      [ATTACH=CONFIG]8188[/ATTACH]

                      [ATTACH=CONFIG]8189[/ATTACH]


                      Hat tip to inertia at CARM [ATTACH=CONFIG]8190[/ATTACH]
                      ## Does the existence of "Hobbits" on the Flores Islands prove the historicity of "The Hobbit" or of "The Lord of the Rings" ? No; and for the same reason, no accumulation of four-footed snakes can prove the historicity of Genesis 3, if Gen.3 is not historical to begin with. If Gen.3 does not intend to account for serpentine leglessness, with a rigour acceptable to a herpetologist, then it cannot be employed so as to do so. Any more than the super-large mammoths in TLOTR can be employed as data for the evolution of mammoths/pachyderms. It remains conceivable, however remote the likelihood, that if the serpent in Gen.3 was thought of as once having legs or similar limbs, the idea was prompted by the discovery of remains like those in the article.

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Originally posted by seer View Post
                        And the LORD God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life
                        Snakes lost their legs well before the first human beings appeared, so what are you talking about?

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          Originally posted by rogue06 View Post
                          Interestingly the remains of one of the two-legged snakes mentioned, Eupodophis descouensi (although I merely mentioned it by its species name), was found in limestone in Lebanon.

                          [ATTACH=CONFIG]8211[/ATTACH]
                          Why is that particularly interesting?

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            Originally posted by whag View Post
                            Snakes lost their legs well before the first human beings appeared, so what are you talking about?
                            Darwinian propaganda. True Biblical Christians™ know Mr. A & Mrs. E shared the Earth with legged snakemen prior to eating the giant blackberry.
                            Last edited by Duragizer; 07-25-2015, 07:46 PM.
                            "When the Western world accepted Christianity, Caesar conquered; and the received text of Western theology was edited by his lawyers…. The brief Galilean vision of humility flickered throughout the ages, uncertainly…. But the deeper idolatry, of the fashioning of God in the image of the Egyptian, Persian, and Roman imperial rulers, was retained. The Church gave unto God the attributes which belonged exclusively to Caesar."

                            — Alfred North Whitehead

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              Originally posted by Duragizer View Post
                              Darwinian propaganda. True Biblical Christians™ know Mr. A & Mrs. E shared the Earth with legged snakemen prior to eating the giant blackberry.
                              Talking "legged snake-men", no less, as "True Biblical Christian seer makes clear with his Genesis quote. And the fruit is traditionally thought to have been an apple not a giant blackberry. This is the 'Word of God' so it's important to get it right.
                              “He felt that his whole life was a kind of dream and he sometimes wondered whose it was and whether they were enjoying it.” - Douglas Adams.

                              Comment

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