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New Bird/Dinosaur intermediate species found

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  • New Bird/Dinosaur intermediate species found

    New species found that is an intermediate between bird-like dinosaurs and birds that is more like a bird with attributes of a dinosaur.

    [cite]=https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2018/09/news-new-species-fossil-bird-dinosaurs-flight-evolution-paleontology/]

    'Messy' New Species of Dinosaur-Era Bird Discovered
    The odd animal, named Jinguofortis perplexus, displays an unusual mosaic of bird and dinosaur features.

    BY JOHN PICKRELL
    PUBLISHED SEPTEMBER 24, 2018

    Paleontologists in China have discovered a new species of fossil bird that they say reveals a pivotal point in the evolution of flight, when birds had lost the long bony tail seen in dinosaurs such as Tyrannosaurus and the early bird Archaeopteryx, but before they had developed the fan of feathers on a shortened tail seen in flying birds today.

    The 127-million-year-old species, which they have named Jinguofortis perplexus, retains other features of its dinosaur ancestors, such as claws on the fingers of its wings, a jaw with tiny teeth rather than a beak, and a fused shoulder girdle. That last trait is seemingly poorly adapted to flight, hence the name “perplexus.” (Read more about the evolutionary link between dinosaurs and modern birds.) [/cite]
    Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
    Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
    But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

    go with the flow the river knows . . .

    Frank

    I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

  • #2
    Another important Intermediary species found in the Archaeopteryx avian-dinosaur group of species demonstrating the progressive bird like characteristics of the species over time.

    Source: http://www.sci-news.com/paleontology/archaeopteryx-albersdoerferi-06544.html



    Paleontologists Discover New Species of Archaeopteryx

    Archaeopteryx was first described as the ‘missing link’ between reptiles and birds in 1861 — and is now regarded as the link between dinosaurs and birds. Only 12 specimens have ever been found and all are from the late Jurassic of Bavaria, Germany, dating back approximately 150 million years. Now, Dr. Martin Kundrát from the University of Pavol Jozef Šafárik and co-authors have identified a new species of Archaeopteryx — named A. albersdoerferi — that is closer to modern birds in evolutionary terms.

    Using synchrotron microtomography, Dr. Kundrát and colleagues examined one of 12 Archaeopteryx specimens, known as ‘specimen number eight.’

    “This Archaeopteryx individual is physically much closer to a modern bird than it is to a reptile,” the paleontologists said.

    “Therefore, it is evolutionary distinctive and different enough to be described as a new species — Archaeopteryx albersdoerferi.”

    Some of the differing skeletal characteristics of Archaeopteryx albersdoerferi include the fusion of cranial bones, different pectoral girdle (chest) and wing elements, and a reinforced configuration of carpals and metacarpals (hand) bones.

    These characteristics are seen more in modern flying birds and are not found in the older Archaeopteryx lithographica species, which more resembles reptiles and dinosaurs.

    Specimen number eight is the youngest of all the 12 known specimens by approximately half a million years. This age difference in comparison to the other specimens is a key factor in describing it as a new species.

    “By digitally dissecting the fossil we found that this specimen differed from all of the others,” said co-author Dr. John Nudds, from the School of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of Manchester.

    “It possessed skeletal adaptations which would have resulted in much more efficient flight.”

    “In a nutshell we have discovered what Archaeopteryx lithographica evolved into — i.e. a more advanced bird, better adapted to flying — and we have described this as a new species of Archaeopteryx.”

    “This is the first time that numerous bones and teeth of Archaeopteryx were viewed from all aspects including exposure of their inner structure,” Dr. Kundrát said.

    “The use of synchrotron microtomography was the only way to study the specimen as it is heavily compressed with many fragmented bones partly or completely hidden in limestone.”

    “Whenever a missing link is discovered, this merely creates two further missing links — what came before, and what came after,” Dr. Nudds said.

    “What came before was discovered in 1996 with the feathered dinosaurs in China. Our new species is what came after. It confirms Archaeopteryx as the first bird, and not just one of a number of feathered theropod dinosaurs, which some authors have suggested recently. You could say that it puts Archaeopteryx back on its perch as the first bird.”

    The discovery is reported in the Historical Biology, an international journal of paleobiology.

    © Copyright Original Source

    Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
    Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
    But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

    go with the flow the river knows . . .

    Frank

    I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

    Comment


    • #3
      Well, that would be evidence for macro-evolution. The evidence against macro-evolution in the fossil record is that we see long periods of stasis, followed by the sudden appearance of new forms.

      Blessings,
      Lee
      "What I pray of you is, to keep your eye upon Him, for that is everything. Do you say, 'How am I to keep my eye on Him?' I reply, keep your eye off everything else, and you will soon see Him. All depends on the eye of faith being kept on Him. How simple it is!" (J.B. Stoney)

      Comment


      • #4
        Originally posted by lee_merrill View Post
        Well, that would be evidence for macro-evolution. The evidence against macro-evolution in the fossil record is that we see long periods of stasis, followed by the sudden appearance of new forms.

        Blessings,
        Lee
        Species that are well adapted to environments will remain as along as that environment persists and long periods of stasis in common in the fossil record of life. It is not a problem for evolution. Some species have persisted for millions and if not billions of years, because they well adapted to a given environment, though some may evolve as new environmental niches are available. The evolution of species is a response to environment changes, competition for survival, and new environmental opportunities.


        As far as birds in Cretaceous there were many species of small dinosaurs with feathers, avian dinosaurs, and birds of various lineages which after the great extinction event only some branches of birds survived and they show a rapid diverse evolution after the extinction event. I believe there are more diversity and intermediates and there are more found all the time.

        Source: https://phys.org/news/2018-11-rare-fossil-bird-deepens-mystery.html



        During the late Cretaceous period, more than 65 million years ago, birds belonging to hundreds of different species flitted around the dinosaurs and through the forests as abundantly as they flit about our woods and fields today.

        But after the cataclysm that wiped out most of the dinosaurs, only one group of birds remained: the ancestors of the birds we see today. Why did only one family survive the mass extinction?

        A newly described fossil from one of those extinct bird groups, cousins of today's birds, deepens that mystery.

        The 75-million-year-old fossil, from a bird about the size of a turkey vulture, is the most complete skeleton discovered in North America of what are called enantiornithines (pronounced en-an-tea-or'-neth-eens), or opposite birds. Discovered in the Grand Staircase-Escalante area of Utah in 1992 by University of California, Berkeley, paleontologist Howard Hutchison, the fossil lay relatively untouched in University of California Museum of Paleontology at Berkeley until doctoral student Jessie Atterholt learned about it in 2009 and asked to study it.

        Atterholt and Hutchison collaborated with Jingmai O'Conner, the leading expert on enantiornithines, to perform a detailed analysis of the fossil. Based on their study, enantiornithines in the late Cretaceous were the aerodynamic equals of the ancestors of today's birds, able to fly strongly and agilely.

        "We know that birds in the early Cretaceous, about 115 to 130 million years ago, were capable of flight but probably not as well adapted for it as modern birds," said Atterholt, who is now an assistant professor and human anatomy instructor at the Western University of Health Sciences in Pomona, California. "What this new fossil shows is that enantiornithines, though totally separate from modern birds, evolved some of the same adaptations for highly refined, advanced flight styles."

        The fossil's breast bone or sternum, where flight muscles attach, is more deeply keeled than other enantiornithines, implying a larger muscle and stronger flight more similar to modern birds. The wishbone is more V-shaped, like the wishbone of modern birds and unlike the U-shaped wishbone of earlier avians and their dinosaur ancestors. The wishbone or furcula is flexible and stores energy released during the wing stroke.


        If enantiornithines in the late Cretaceous were just as advanced as modern birds, however, why did they die out with the dinosaurs while the ancestors of modern birds did not?

        "This particular bird is about 75 million years old, about 10 million years before the die-off," Atterholt said. "One of the really interesting and mysterious things about enantiornithines is that we find them throughout the Cretaceous, for roughly 100 million years of existence, and they were very successful. We find their fossils on every continent, all over the world, and their fossils are very, very common, in a lot of areas more common than the group that led to modern birds. And yet modern birds survived the extinction while enantiornithines go extinct."

        One recently proposed hypothesis argues that the enantiornithines were primarily forest dwellers, so that when forests went up in smoke after the asteroid strike that signaled the end of the Cretaceous—and the end of non-avian dinosaurs—the enantiornithines disappeared as well. Many enantiornithines have strong recurved claws ideal for perching and perhaps climbing, she said.

        © Copyright Original Source



        Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-11-rare-f...stery.html#jCp

        After the great extinction event apparently there were at least three groups of orders of main class of birds that survived, The Ratites,
        Anseriformes (duck billed birds) and the rest of the bird orders. All the forest dwelling birds of the time apparently did not survive of the time did not survive, and the surviving birds evolved and adapted to forest environments..
        Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
        Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
        But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

        go with the flow the river knows . . .

        Frank

        I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

        Comment


        • #5
          Originally posted by lee_merrill View Post
          Well, that would be evidence for macro-evolution. The evidence against macro-evolution in the fossil record is that we see long periods of stasis, followed by the sudden appearance of new forms.

          Blessings,
          Lee
          "Sudden" is an extremely relative term. In the geologic record "sudden" might mean over the course of hundreds of thousands or even more than a million years.

          I'm always still in trouble again

          "You're by far the worst poster on TWeb" and "TWeb's biggest liar" --starlight (the guy who says Stalin was a right-winger)
          "Of course, human life begins at fertilization that’s not the argument." --Tassman

          Comment


          • #6
            Originally posted by lee_merrill View Post
            Well, that would be evidence for macro-evolution. The evidence against macro-evolution in the fossil record is that we see long periods of stasis, followed by the sudden appearance of new forms.

            Blessings,
            Lee
            I should also point out that there really is no doubt that macroevolution took place and continues to take place as it has been repeatedly been observed both in nature and the lab. You see speciation, which is when a lineage splits into two or more genetically distinct groups, is a form of macroevolution[1] and occurs so often that even the major Young Earth Creationist (YEC) groups have abandoned the claim that it does not take place and a few even fully embrace it with at least a couple of them now relying on it as an explanation for how a boatload of animals could be responsible for the incredibly wide diversity of lifeforms that inhabit the planet today.






            1. macroevolution by definition is evolutionary change AT or above the species level.

            I'm always still in trouble again

            "You're by far the worst poster on TWeb" and "TWeb's biggest liar" --starlight (the guy who says Stalin was a right-winger)
            "Of course, human life begins at fertilization that’s not the argument." --Tassman

            Comment


            • #7
              Originally posted by rogue06 View Post
              I should also point out that there really is no doubt that macroevolution took place and continues to take place as it has been repeatedly been observed both in nature and the lab. You see speciation, which is when a lineage splits into two or more genetically distinct groups, is a form of macroevolution[1] and occurs so often that even the major Young Earth Creationist (YEC) groups have abandoned the claim that it does not take place and a few even fully embrace it with at least a couple of them now relying on it as an explanation for how a boatload of animals could be responsible for the incredibly wide diversity of lifeforms that inhabit the planet today.






              1. macroevolution by definition is evolutionary change AT or above the species level.
              One of the reason I pick birds as an example of macro evolution is the vast amount of intermediaries and the variety of species in the fossil record evolving from feathered dinosaurs to avian dinosaurs to birds. China's vast finds of near perfectly preserved examples over a period of millions of years in slates primarily from lake sediments in volcanic regions during the periods birds evolved, and more are being discovered all the time. I have been to the primary sites in Liaoning Province, China where most of these discoveries were made. Fossil hunters are blessed by vast amount of species asphyxiated by volcanic gases and fall into the lakes and quickly covered with ash. The finds in the rest of the world like Germany fill in many of the gaps in the fossil record.
              Last edited by shunyadragon; 11-25-2018, 03:57 PM.
              Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
              Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
              But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

              go with the flow the river knows . . .

              Frank

              I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

              Comment


              • #8
                Originally posted by shunyadragon View Post
                One of the reason I pick birds as an example of macro evolution is the vast amount of intermediaries and the variety of species in the fossil record evolving from feathered dinosaurs to avian dinosaurs to birds. China's vast finds of near perfectly preserved examples over a period of millions of years in slates primarily from lake sediments in volcanic regions during the periods birds evolved, and more are being discovered all the time. I have been to the primary sites in Liaoning Province, China where most of these discoveries were made. Fossil hunters are blessed by vast amount of species asphyxiated by volcanic gases and fall into the lakes and quickly covered with ash. The finds in the rest of the world like Germany fill in many of the gaps in the fossil record.
                My favorite is the transition from primitive amniotes to mammals via the synapsids, commonly referred to "mammal-like reptiles." The record is so complete that there is spirited debated over whether to categorize some as "mammal-like reptiles" or as "reptile-like mammals."

                I'm always still in trouble again

                "You're by far the worst poster on TWeb" and "TWeb's biggest liar" --starlight (the guy who says Stalin was a right-winger)
                "Of course, human life begins at fertilization that’s not the argument." --Tassman

                Comment


                • #9
                  Originally posted by rogue06 View Post
                  My favorite is the transition from primitive amniotes to mammals via the synapsids, commonly referred to "mammal-like reptiles." The record is so complete that there is spirited debated over whether to categorize some as "mammal-like reptiles" or as "reptile-like mammals."
                  Yes, this is a good example. I object the concept of a 'sudden appearance' of species, because this only based on the limitations of fossil finds and 'argument from ignorance' asserting, because there are no fossils found at present there is a sudden unexplained appearance.
                  Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
                  Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
                  But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

                  go with the flow the river knows . . .

                  Frank

                  I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Originally posted by lee_merrill View Post
                    Well, that would be evidence for macro-evolution. The evidence against macro-evolution in the fossil record is that we see long periods of stasis, followed by the sudden appearance of new forms.

                    Blessings,
                    Lee
                    I thought I would add here the reason for the appearance of 'is that we see long periods of stasis, followed by the sudden appearance of new forms.' reflects the limited finds of fossils over time that reflect this illusion of 'missing links' in periods of apparent stasis. Over time more and more fossil finds indicate that the 'long periods of stasis' in reality do not exist, and a wide variety of related species and subspecies existed in more of a continuum in time of evolution as in the evolution of birds, and early evolution of mammals..
                    Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
                    Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
                    But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

                    go with the flow the river knows . . .

                    Frank

                    I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      In terms of the birds there are many recent discoveries that demonstrate the diversity of related species and subspecies existing in a continuum of evolution.

                      Source: https://peerj.com/articles/5910/


                      The most complete enantiornithine from North America and a phylogenetic analysis of the Avisauridae

                      The most complete known North American enantiornithine was collected in 1992 but never formally described. The so-called “Kaiparowits avisaurid” remains one of the most exceptional Late Cretaceous enantiornithine fossils. We recognize this specimen as a new taxon, Mirarce eatoni (gen. et sp. nov.), and provide a complete anatomical description. We maintain that the specimen is referable to the Avisauridae, a clade previously only known in North America from isolated tarsometatarsi. Information from this specimen helps to clarify evolutionary trends within the Enantiornithes. Its large body size supports previously observed trends toward larger body mass in the Late Cretaceous. However, trends toward increased fusion of compound elements across the clade as a whole are weak compared to the Ornithuromorpha. The new specimen reveals for the first time the presence of remige papillae in the enantiornithines, indicating this feature was evolved in parallel to dromaeosaurids and derived ornithuromorphs. Although morphology of the pygostyle and (to a lesser degree) the coracoid and manus appear to remain fairly static during the 65 million years plus of enantiornithine evolution, by the end of the Mesozoic at least some enantiornithine birds had evolved several features convergent with the Neornithes including a deeply keeled sternum, a narrow furcula with a short hypocleidium, and ulnar quill knobs—all features that indicate refinement of the flight apparatus and increased aerial abilities. We conduct the first cladistic analysis to include all purported avisuarid enantiornithines, recovering an Avisauridae consisting of a dichotomy between North and South American taxa. Based on morphological observations and supported by cladistic analysis, we demonstrate Avisaurus to be paraphyletic and erect a new genus for “A. gloriae,” Gettyia gen. nov.

                      Cite this as

                      Atterholt J, Hutchison JH, O’Connor JK. 2018. The most complete enantiornithine from North America and a phylogenetic analysis of the Avisauridae. PeerJ 6:e5910 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.5910
                      Main article text

                      Introduction
                      The Enantiornithes are a diverse group of Cretaceous land birds first recognized by Walker (1981) from an assemblage of isolated, three-dimensionally preserved bones collected from deposits of the Maastrichtian Lecho Formation at the El Brete locality in Argentina (Chiappe, 1993, 1996; Walker & Dyke, 2009). The disarticulated and isolated nature of the “El Brete” material left open the possibility that the Enantiornithes was paraphyletic (Steadman, 1983). However, through the discovery of an articulated partial skeleton later used to erect the taxon Neuquenornis volans, Chiappe (1992) demonstrated both the validity of the Enantiornithes as well as the avian affinity of an enigmatic clade, the Avisauridae. Today, the Enantiornithes are considered the first major avian radiation and the dominant clade of land birds in the Cretaceous. Their remains have been collected on every continent except Antarctica, in some cases occurring in great abundance, and by the Late Cretaceous they appear to have occupied a wide range of ecological niches including one potentially flightless form (O’Connor, Chiappe & Bell, 2011).

                      © Copyright Original Source

                      Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
                      Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
                      But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

                      go with the flow the river knows . . .

                      Frank

                      I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Originally posted by shunyadragon View Post
                        In terms of the birds there are many recent discoveries that demonstrate the diversity of related species and subspecies existing in a continuum of evolution.

                        Source: https://peerj.com/articles/5910/


                        The most complete enantiornithine from North America and a phylogenetic analysis of the Avisauridae

                        The most complete known North American enantiornithine was collected in 1992 but never formally described. The so-called “Kaiparowits avisaurid” remains one of the most exceptional Late Cretaceous enantiornithine fossils. We recognize this specimen as a new taxon, Mirarce eatoni (gen. et sp. nov.), and provide a complete anatomical description. We maintain that the specimen is referable to the Avisauridae, a clade previously only known in North America from isolated tarsometatarsi. Information from this specimen helps to clarify evolutionary trends within the Enantiornithes. Its large body size supports previously observed trends toward larger body mass in the Late Cretaceous. However, trends toward increased fusion of compound elements across the clade as a whole are weak compared to the Ornithuromorpha. The new specimen reveals for the first time the presence of remige papillae in the enantiornithines, indicating this feature was evolved in parallel to dromaeosaurids and derived ornithuromorphs. Although morphology of the pygostyle and (to a lesser degree) the coracoid and manus appear to remain fairly static during the 65 million years plus of enantiornithine evolution, by the end of the Mesozoic at least some enantiornithine birds had evolved several features convergent with the Neornithes including a deeply keeled sternum, a narrow furcula with a short hypocleidium, and ulnar quill knobs—all features that indicate refinement of the flight apparatus and increased aerial abilities. We conduct the first cladistic analysis to include all purported avisuarid enantiornithines, recovering an Avisauridae consisting of a dichotomy between North and South American taxa. Based on morphological observations and supported by cladistic analysis, we demonstrate Avisaurus to be paraphyletic and erect a new genus for “A. gloriae,” Gettyia gen. nov.

                        Cite this as

                        Atterholt J, Hutchison JH, O’Connor JK. 2018. The most complete enantiornithine from North America and a phylogenetic analysis of the Avisauridae. PeerJ 6:e5910 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.5910
                        Main article text

                        Introduction
                        The Enantiornithes are a diverse group of Cretaceous land birds first recognized by Walker (1981) from an assemblage of isolated, three-dimensionally preserved bones collected from deposits of the Maastrichtian Lecho Formation at the El Brete locality in Argentina (Chiappe, 1993, 1996; Walker & Dyke, 2009). The disarticulated and isolated nature of the “El Brete” material left open the possibility that the Enantiornithes was paraphyletic (Steadman, 1983). However, through the discovery of an articulated partial skeleton later used to erect the taxon Neuquenornis volans, Chiappe (1992) demonstrated both the validity of the Enantiornithes as well as the avian affinity of an enigmatic clade, the Avisauridae. Today, the Enantiornithes are considered the first major avian radiation and the dominant clade of land birds in the Cretaceous. Their remains have been collected on every continent except Antarctica, in some cases occurring in great abundance, and by the Late Cretaceous they appear to have occupied a wide range of ecological niches including one potentially flightless form (O’Connor, Chiappe & Bell, 2011).

                        © Copyright Original Source

                        Translate: They are finding parallel evolution of several avian dinosaurs developing the ability for flight.
                        Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
                        Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
                        But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

                        go with the flow the river knows . . .

                        Frank

                        I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          Originally posted by shunyadragon View Post
                          I thought I would add here the reason for the appearance of 'is that we see long periods of stasis, followed by the sudden appearance of new forms.' reflects the limited finds of fossils over time that reflect this illusion of 'missing links' in periods of apparent stasis. Over time more and more fossil finds indicate that the 'long periods of stasis' in reality do not exist, and a wide variety of related species and subspecies existed in more of a continuum in time of evolution as in the evolution of birds, and early evolution of mammals..
                          Well, I was quoting an evolutionist, from "Beak of the Finch." Long periods of statis do exist, which is why evolutionists have come up with "punctuated equilibrium" as a description of the fossil record.

                          Blessings,
                          Lee
                          "What I pray of you is, to keep your eye upon Him, for that is everything. Do you say, 'How am I to keep my eye on Him?' I reply, keep your eye off everything else, and you will soon see Him. All depends on the eye of faith being kept on Him. How simple it is!" (J.B. Stoney)

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            Originally posted by lee_merrill View Post
                            Well, I was quoting an evolutionist, from "Beak of the Finch." Long periods of statis do exist, which is why evolutionists have come up with "punctuated equilibrium" as a description of the fossil record.

                            Blessings,
                            Lee
                            Actually Darwin predicted that there would be periods of stasis since organisms will evolve at different rates pretty much from the get go.

                            Source: On The Origin of the Species, First Edition


                            ”Species of different genera and classes have not changed at the same rate, or in the same degree. In the oldest tertiary beds a few living shells may still be found in the midst of a multitude of extinct forms. Falconer has given a striking instance of a similar fact, in an existing crocodile associated with many strange and lost mammals and reptiles in the sub-Himalayan deposits. The Silurian Lingula differs but little from the living species of this genus; whereas most of the other Silurian Molluscs and all the Crustaceans have changed greatly.”


                            Source

                            © Copyright Original Source


                            I'm always still in trouble again

                            "You're by far the worst poster on TWeb" and "TWeb's biggest liar" --starlight (the guy who says Stalin was a right-winger)
                            "Of course, human life begins at fertilization that’s not the argument." --Tassman

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              Originally posted by lee_merrill View Post
                              Well, I was quoting an evolutionist, from "Beak of the Finch." Long periods of statis do exist, which is why evolutionists have come up with "punctuated equilibrium" as a description of the fossil record.

                              Blessings,
                              Lee
                              Again, yes, that is what is described by the limited fossil finds with of course gaps in the finds. You have neglected the facts that the concept of 'punctuated equilibrium' is based on millions of years, plenty of time for evolution to take place at leisurely pace. Please note that the book observed that by the present evidence at the time there were gaps that indicated stasis, and not the conclusion, and not the conclusion that stasis was not the fact.

                              A more contemporary approach based on more fossil evidence throughout the geologic history of life, like the evidence for the evolution of the birds there was a great variety of variations and subspecies existing at the same time the evolution of bird-like dinosaurs to birds took place based on the discoveries since the book was published. We are now dealing with many species, cub-species and varieties living at the same time throughout the Cretaceous along with birds in the late Cretaceous. This great variety of related species, subspecies and varieties is common in among animals and plants in today's rain forests.

                              The "Beak of the Finch" is 1995. Kind of old concerning the present knowledge of an immense more fossils discovered since including many more fossils of bird like dinosaurs, avian dinosaurs, primitive birds and birds in the Cretaceous creating a detailed picture of continuous evolution from dinosaurs to birds.

                              An interesting example is the evaluation of old discoveries. In the slates where the first archaeopteryx was found they also found a complete feather they thought belonged to the archaeopteryx, but based on further discoveries it was found to be a more evolved avian dinosaur with bird flight or a bird's feather that lived at the same time as the Archaeopteryx.
                              Last edited by shunyadragon; 03-01-2019, 09:13 PM.
                              Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
                              Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
                              But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

                              go with the flow the river knows . . .

                              Frank

                              I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

                              Comment

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