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Comet Airburst Initiated Transition to Agriculture 12,800 Years Ago

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  • Comet Airburst Initiated Transition to Agriculture 12,800 Years Ago

    Between ~12,800 to 12,000 years ago Paleo hunter gatherer cultures were replaced by agriculture and village cultures all across the northern hemisphere, What caused this change in human culture. The conclusion was an airburst caused the decline of the paleo cultures, drop in population, and the extinction of Paleolithic Megafauna, followed by the advent of agriculture village culture. This event and following impact on humanity is called the Younger Dryas Cooling period.

    Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34986034/



    The progress of science has sometimes been unjustifiably delayed by the premature rejection of a hypothesis for which substantial evidence existed and which later achieved consensus. Continental drift, meteorite impact cratering, and anthropogenic global warming are examples from the first half...
    pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

    Comet Airburst Initiated Transition to Agriculture 12,800 Years Ago, Scientists Say​

    Oct 16, 2023 by News Staff


    Around 12,800 years ago, Earth collided with fragments of a disintegrating comet, triggering Younger Dryas climate change; this event created environmental conditions at Abu Hureyra, Syria, that favored the earliest known continuous cultivation of domestic-type grains and legumes, along with animal management, adding to the pre-existing practice of hunting-and-gathering. That’s the assertion made by scientists in one of four related papers, all appearing in the journal Science Open: Airbursts and Cratering Impacts.

    The Paleolithic settlement at Abu Hureyra in what is now Syria may have been destroyed 12,800 years ago because of a comet.

    Abu Hureyra is a mound settlement (commonly known as a tell) located in northern Syria along the Euphrates River. The ancient site now lies beneath Lake Assad, created when the Tabqa Dam was completed in 1974.

    In 1972 and 1973, before the settlement was flooded, archaeologists collected enough evidence of houses, food and tools to identify two sites — a Paleolithic settlement and evidence for an early agricultural society. The settlement occupants left an abundant and continuous record of seeds, legumes and other foods.

    “In this general region, there was a change from more humid conditions that were forested and with diverse sources of food for hunter-gatherers, to drier, cooler conditions when they could no longer subsist only as hunter-gatherers,” said Professor James Kennett, a researcher at the University of California, Santa Barbara. “The villagers started to cultivate barley, wheat and legumes. This is what the evidence clearly shows.”

    By studying these archaeological layers, Professor Kennett and colleagues were able to discern the types of plants that were being collected in the warmer, humid days before the climate changed and in the cooler, drier days after the onset of what we know now as the Younger Dryas cool period.

    Before the impact, the inhabitants’ prehistoric diet involved wild legumes and wild-type grains, and small but significant amounts of wild fruits and berries.
    In the layers corresponding to the time after cooling, fruits and berries disappeared and their diet shifted toward more domestic-type grains and lentils, as the people experimented with early cultivation methods.

    By about 1,000 years later, all of the Neolithic ‘founder crops’ — emmer wheat, einkorn wheat, hulled barley, rye, peas, lentils, bitter vetch, chickpeas and flax — were being cultivated in what is now called the Fertile Crescent.

    Drought-resistant plants, both edible and inedible, become more prominent in the record as well, reflecting a drier climate that followed the sudden impact winter at the onset of the Younger Dryas.

    The evidence also indicates a significant drop in the area’s population, and changes in the settlement’s architecture to reflect a more agrarian lifestyle, including the initial penning of livestock and other markers of animal domestication.

    To be clear, agriculture eventually arose in several places on Earth in the Neolithic, but it arose first in the Levant (present-day Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel and parts of Turkey) initiated by the severe climate conditions that followed the impact. In the 12,800-year-old layers corresponding to the shift between hunting and gathering and agriculture, the record at Abu Hureyra shows evidence of massive burning.

    The evidence includes a carbon-rich ‘black mat’ layer with high concentrations of platinum, nanodiamonds and tiny metallic spherules that could only have been formed under extremely high temperatures.

    The airburst flattened trees and straw huts, splashing melt-glass onto cereals and grains, as well as on the early buildings, tools and animal bones found in the mound — and most likely on people, too. This event is not the only such evidence of a cosmic airburst on a human settlement.

    The authors previously reported a smaller but similar event which destroyed the Biblical city at Tall el-Hammam in the Jordan Valley about 1650 BCE.
    The black mat layer, nanodiamonds and melted minerals have also been found at about 50 other sites across North and South America and Europe, the collection of which has been called the Younger Dryas strewnfield.

    According to the researchers, it’s evidence of a widespread simultaneous destructive event, consistent with a fragmented comet that slammed into the Earth’s atmosphere. The explosions, fires and subsequent impact winter caused the extinction of most large animals, including the mammoths, saber-toothed cats, American horses, and American camels, as well as the collapse of the North American Clovis culture.

    Because the impact appears to have produced an aerial explosion there is no evidence of craters in the ground. “But a crater is not required. Many accepted impacts have no visible crater,” Professor Kennett said.

    The scientists continue to compile evidence of relatively lower-pressure cosmic explosions — the kind that occur when the shockwave originates in the air and travels downward to the Earth’s surface.

    “Shocked quartz is well known and is probably the most robust proxy for a cosmic impact,” Professor Kennett said. “Only forces on par with cosmic-level explosions could have produced the microscopic deformations within quartz sand grains at the time of the impacts, and these deformations have been found in abundance in the minerals gathered from impact craters.”

    This ‘crème de la crème’ of cosmic impact evidence has also been identified at Abu Hureyra and at other Younger Dryas Boundary sites, despite an absence of craters.
    However, it has been argued that the kind of shock-fractured quartz found at the sites is not equivalent to that found in the large crater-forming sites, so the authors worked to link these deformations to lower-pressure cosmic events.

    © Copyright Original Source

    Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
    Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
    But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

    go with the flow the river knows . . .

    Frank

    I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

  • #2
    The article does not make all things clear concerning the beginnings of agriculture. Yes this represents the beginning of organized large scale agriculture and village system in the Middle East, but World wide it is a more complex picture of beginnings of proto-agriculture and the beginnings of large scale agriculture and plant breeding. For example in China large scale agriculture of rice with selective breeding began ~13,500-8,200, because of the widespread river valleys and lowlands with abundant wild varieties of rice.

    The Younger-Dryas event did have wide effects across the northern hemisphere some regional effects greater that other regions.
    Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
    Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
    But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

    go with the flow the river knows . . .

    Frank

    I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

    Comment


    • #3
      How about a phony claim of a meteor burst that supposably destroyed around 1650 B.C.E., the Bronze Age city of Tall el-Hammam claiming it confirms the story of Sodom and Gomorrah. Even the Scientific Reports followed by the Smithsonian was dupped into writing a follow up story on the claim.

      Source: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/destruction-of-city-by-space-rock-may-have-inspired-biblical-story-of-sodom-180978734/



      Ancient City’s Destruction by Exploding Space Rock May Have Inspired Biblical Story of Sodom


      Around 1650 B.C.E., the Bronze Age city of Tall el-Hammam was wiped out by a blast 1,000 times more powerful than the atomic bomb used at Hiroshima
      Livia Gershon

      Daily Correspondent
      September 22, 2021

      Air temperatures rapidly rose above 3,600 degrees Fahrenheit,” writes study co-author Christopher Moore. “Clothing and wood immediately burst into flames. Swords, spears, mudbricks and pottery began to melt. Almost immediately, the entire city was on fire.” Allen West and Jennifer Rice under CC BY-ND

      The destruction of Tall el-Hammam, a Bronze Age city in the Jordan Valley, by an exploding comet or meteor may have inspired the biblical story of Sodom and Gomorrah, a new study suggests. (“[N]otoriously sinful cities,” Sodom and Gomorrah’s devastation by sulfur and fire is recorded in the Book of Genesis, according to Encyclopedia Britannica.)

      At the time of the disaster, around 1650 B.C.E., Tall el-Hammam was the largest of three major cities in the valley. It likely acted as the region’s political center, reports Ariella Marsden for the Jerusalem Post. Combined, the three metropolises boasted a population of around 50,000.

      Tall el-Hammam’s mudbrick buildings stood up to five stories tall. Over the years, archaeologists examining the structures’ ruins have found evidence of a sudden high-temperature, destructive event—for instance, pottery pieces that were melted on the outside but untouched inside.
      Almost immediately, the entire city was on fire.

      The new paper, published in the journal Nature Scientific Reports, examined possible causes of the devastation based on the archaeological record. The researchers concluded that warfare, a fire, a volcanic eruption or an earthquake were unlikely culprits, as these events couldn’t have produced heat intense enough to cause the melting recorded at the scene. That left a space rock as the most likely cause.

      Because experts failed to find a crater at the site, they attributed the damage to an airburst created when a meteor or comet traveled through the atmosphere at high speed. It would have exploded about 2.5 miles above the city in a blast 1,000 times more powerful than the atomic bomb used at Hiroshima, writes study co-author Christopher R. Moore, an archaeologist at the University of South Carolina, for the Conversation.

      “Air temperatures rapidly rose above 3,600 degrees Fahrenheit,” Moore explains. “Clothing and wood immediately burst into flames. Swords, spears, mudbricks and pottery began to melt. Almost immediately, the entire city was on fire.”

      Report this ad
      Seconds after the blast, a shockwave ripped through the city at a speed of roughly 740 miles per hour—faster than the worst tornado ever recorded. The cities’ buildings were reduced to foundations and rubble.

      “None of the 8,000 people or any animals within the city survived,” Moore adds. “Their bodies were torn apart and their bones blasted into small fragments.”

      Corroborating the idea that an airburst caused the destruction, the researchers found melted metals and unusual mineral fragments among the city’s ruins.

      © Copyright Original Source



      What appears to be a very convincing reporting of the catastrophic destruction of the Bronze Age city of Tall el-Hammam is an elaborate fabricated hoax.

      Seee next post for the real story . . .
      Last edited by shunyadragon; 11-29-2023, 11:34 AM.
      Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
      Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
      But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

      go with the flow the river knows . . .

      Frank

      I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

      Comment


      • #4
        Source: https://retractionwatch.com/2021/10/01/criticism-engulfs-paper-claiming-an-asteroid-destroyed-biblical-sodom-and-gomorrah/



        Scientific Reports is taking heat on social media and from data sleuths for publishing a paper implying that the Biblical story of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah might have been the retelling of the devastation wrought by an exploding asteroid in or around the year 1,650 BCE.

        To the lay reader — and to peer reviewers and editors, evidently — the article, “A Tunguska sized airburst destroyed Tall el-Hammam a Middle Bronze Age city in the Jordan Valley near the Dead Sea,” makes at least a superficially plausible and scientifically rigorous case.

        According to the abstract:

        We present evidence that in ~ 1650 BCE (~ 3600 years ago), a cosmic airburst destroyed Tall el-Hammam, a Middle-Bronze-Age city in the southern Jordan Valley northeast of the Dead Sea. The proposed airburst was larger than the 1908 explosion over Tunguska, Russia, where a ~ 50-m-wide bolide detonated with ~ 1000× more energy than the Hiroshima atomic bomb. A city-wide ~ 1.5-m-thick carbon-and-ash-rich destruction layer contains peak concentrations of shocked quartz (~ 5–10 GPa); melted pottery and mudbricks; diamond-like carbon; soot; Fe- and Si-rich spherules; CaCO3 spherules from melted plaster; and melted platinum, iridium, nickel, gold, silver, zircon, chromite, and quartz. Heating experiments indicate temperatures exceeded 2000 °C. Amid city-side devastation, the airburst demolished 12+ m of the 4-to-5-story palace complex and the massive 4-m-thick mudbrick rampart, while causing extreme disarticulation and skeletal fragmentation in nearby humans. An airburst-related influx of salt (~ 4 wt.%) produced hypersalinity, inhibited agriculture, and caused a ~ 300–600-year-long abandonment of ~ 120 regional settlements within a > 25-km radius. Tall el-Hammam may be the second oldest city/town destroyed by a cosmic airburst/impact, after Abu Hureyra, Syria, and possibly the earliest site with an oral tradition that was written down (Genesis). Tunguska-scale airbursts can devastate entire cities/regions and thus, pose a severe modern-day hazard.

        The paper has been a big hit, according to Altmetric, which ranks it as the top article for online attention among papers published at the same time. It also garnered coverage from a slew of news outlets — many of which reprinted an opinion piece about the findings by co-author Christopher Moore, of the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology at the University of South Carolina.

        But shortly after publication, Mark Boslough, a physicist at Sandia National Laboratories in New Mexico and a fellow of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, took to Twitter to raise several concerns about the article. (Boslough initially misidentified the publication as Nature, for which he later apologized.)

        Boslough pointed out “my model of asteroid airbursts is cited as the mechanism by which God smote this evil city.” He then noted that the senior author of the study was Phillip Silvia, an “engineer, theologian, archaeologist” and the director of publications at Trinity Southwest University, an apparently unaccredited evangelical school located in a strip mall in Albuquerque, whose motto is “Flexible Adult Higher Education Upholding Biblical Authority.” (Silvia earned his PhD from Trinity Southwest in 2015.)

        Earlier this week, Elisabeth Bik joined the critics, identifying an image in the paper with signs of having been doctored. Bik also wondered about the affiliation of two of the co-authors, Alan West and Timothy Witwer, which is listed as the Comet Research Group and is:
        located in a residential area in Prescott, AZ. Registered to the same address is the “Rising Light Group Inc.” and a consultancy business.

        Other members of the research team are affiliated with North Carolina State University, Northeastern Arizona University, Elizabeth City State University, New Mexico Institute On Mining & Technology, Charles University in Prague, and the United States Navy.

        More criticism of the article can be found on PubPeer.

        Richard White, the chief editor of Scientific Reports, told us:
        We’re aware of the concerns that have been raised and are considering them carefully.

        Silvia told us:
        The accusation that the image was photoshopped is categorically false. The only edits made to that image are the additions of the colored dots to note the pieces that came from the same pots and the outlines to group them.

        As far as the comments made in the link you provided are concerned… Note that they are all ad hominem attacks against the authors (including myself) and the institutions (like TSU) and affiliations (like the Comet Research Group) with which we are associated. None of their comments address the science within our paper, probably because they have nothing of value to add to the discussion. It’s a classic example of character assassination substituted for a rational discussion of the evidence. What motivates it? Who’s to say?

        One of his co-authors, George Howard, of Restoration Systems, an environmental “mitigation banking business” in North Carolina — and who blogs on Cosmic Tusk about “abrupt climate change and pandemic induced by comets and asteroids during human history” — hit back at Bik, who’d tweeted:
        This does not necessarily mean something, but it is remarkable that this archeological research was overseen by an unaccredited evangelical Christian institution that pursues a divine authority and the bible as the only written representation of reality.

        In a post Boslough screen-shotted, Howard wrote:
        ‘This does not necessarily mean something.’ Wtf does that mean? Then why post you bigot? You are a prejudiced cheap shot artist anti-science punk, and need to quit tweeting and publish your attacks in peer-reviewed contexts. What other religion to [sic] you defame?

        © Copyright Original Source




        Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
        Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
        But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

        go with the flow the river knows . . .

        Frank

        I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

        Comment


        • #5
          More on the fabricated hoax

          Source: [URL="https://pubpeer.com/publications/37B87CAC48DE4BC98AD40E00330143#4"

          https://pubpeer.com/publications/37B...D40E00330143#4[/URL]

          Criticism engulfs paper claiming an asteroid destroyed Biblical Sodom and Gomorrah

          via Scientific Reports Scientific Reports is taking heat on social media and from data sleuths for publishing a paper implying that the Biblical story of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah might…
          retractionwatch.com
          From the first source, an expert was not too impressed by the "shocked quartz" as I said earlier:

          Once false claims like these are published in a peer-reviewed publication it becomes very difficult to get them removed from other sources, such as news stories and Wikipedia. This alone is sufficient cause for retraction if any of the following false claims and fabrications are left uncorrected.

          1. Bunch et al (2021) Fig. 28 caption reads “Shocked quartz from known airbursts. (a) SEM image of 140-µm-wide shocked quartz grain from Tunguska airburst,” but does not attribute the source. However, this is not an image of shocked quartz. This is not what shocked quartz looks like. On Sept. 22, 2021, I tweeted the following questions about Figure 28(a): “Who collected the sample? Where, exactly, did it come from in the Tunguska airburst area? Who sponsored and led the expedition to collect it? Was it float or from an outcrop? Who prepared it in the lab? And what is the basis for classifying this as shocked quartz?” Can you please answer these questions? Publishing claims without evidence, as was done here, does not satisfy the requirements for peer review.
          2. On page 27, under the section “Discussion of shocked quartz in airbursts,” the paper explains, “A previous hypothesis explains how shock lamellae might form in a cosmic airburst, such as Tunguska. Kletetschka et al.[69] proposed that when unconsolidated surface sediments containing quartz grains are struck by the atmospheric shock wave from an airburst, if the velocity exceeds 7 km/s, the elastic limit of quartz, then shock lamellae develop.” Kletetschka et al. [69] is provided under the references: “Kletetschka, G., Radana, K. & Hakan, U. Evidence of shock-generated plasma’s demagnetization in the shock-exposed rocks. Sci. Rep. (2021).” This paper does not exist. The closest match I can find is “Kletetschka, G., Radana, K. & Hakan, U. Plasma shielding removes prior magnetization record from impacted rocks near Santa Fe, New Mexico Sci. Rep. (2021).” However, this paper does not mention either shock lamellae or airbursts, let alone how an airburst could form shock lamellae. It appears that there is some confusion by the authors regarding the meaning of the term “elastic limit” which is given in units of pressure, not velocity. In shock physics, we consider a quantity called “Hugoniot Elastic Limit” (HEL) from which the Rankine-Hugoniot equations can relate to other quantities, but the statement “if the velocity exceeds 7 km/s” is ambiguous because there are many different velocities associated with impacts. Does this 7 km/s refer to the impact velocity, shock velocity, or particle velocity? If shock velocity, does it refer to that associated with the shock wave in the air or in the rock? Likewise, does the particle velocity refer to that in the air or in the rock? Are you referring to the primary or reflected shocks, and what reference frame are you using if you are talking about a reflected shock wave? Depending on what you mean, by “velocity exceeds 7 km/s,” and the equation of state of the target rock, the assumed HEL could be different by many orders of magnitude. Given the apparent lack of basic shock physics understanding, lack of definition, and citation to a nonexistent paper, I request that another correction be issued and that this wrong information be removed.
          3. Quoting from page 54: “The airburst generated a pressure wave that toppled or snapped > 80 million trees, some up to 1-m in diameter[178].” This false claim needs to be corrected for reasons given in comment #63 above. Non-peer-reviewed young-earth creationist literature is not a valid source of scientific information, and there is no peer-reviewed source for either the claim that > 80 million trees were toppled or snapped, or that some were up to 1-m in diameter. This is simply fabricated and has no place in a peer reviewed paper.
          4. In my continuing tweet thread of threads that started this PubPeer article, I addressed an egregious misrepresentation of my own work by the authors. This is something that needs to be corrected so that such misinformation is not attributed to me because of these false claims about my work. Here’s a direct link to the relevant part of my Twitter thread:https://pubpeer.com/publications/37B...D40E00330143#4
            Criticism engulfs paper claiming an asteroid destroyed Biblical Sodom and Gomorrah

            via Scientific Reports Scientific Reports is taking heat on social media and from data sleuths for publishing a paper implying that the Biblical story of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah might…
            retractionwatch.com
            From the first source, an expert was not too impressed by the "shocked quartz" as I said earlier:

            Once false claims like these are published in a peer-reviewed publication it becomes very difficult to get them removed from other sources, such as news stories and Wikipedia. This alone is sufficient cause for retraction if any of the following false claims and fabrications are left uncorrected.
          5. Bunch et al (2021) Fig. 28 caption reads “Shocked quartz from known airbursts. (a) SEM image of 140-µm-wide shocked quartz grain from Tunguska airburst,” but does not attribute the source. However, this is not an image of shocked quartz. This is not what shocked quartz looks like. On Sept. 22, 2021, I tweeted the following questions about Figure 28(a): “Who collected the sample? Where, exactly, did it come from in the Tunguska airburst area? Who sponsored and led the expedition to collect it? Was it float or from an outcrop? Who prepared it in the lab? And what is the basis for classifying this as shocked quartz?” Can you please answer these questions? Publishing claims without evidence, as was done here, does not satisfy the requirements for peer review.
          6. On page 27, under the section “Discussion of shocked quartz in airbursts,” the paper explains, “A previous hypothesis explains how shock lamellae might form in a cosmic airburst, such as Tunguska. Kletetschka et al.[69] proposed that when unconsolidated surface sediments containing quartz grains are struck by the atmospheric shock wave from an airburst, if the velocity exceeds 7 km/s, the elastic limit of quartz, then shock lamellae develop.” Kletetschka et al. [69] is provided under the references: “Kletetschka, G., Radana, K. & Hakan, U. Evidence of shock-generated plasma’s demagnetization in the shock-exposed rocks. Sci. Rep. (2021).” This paper does not exist. The closest match I can find is “Kletetschka, G., Radana, K. & Hakan, U. Plasma shielding removes prior magnetization record from impacted rocks near Santa Fe, New Mexico Sci. Rep. (2021).” However, this paper does not mention either shock lamellae or airbursts, let alone how an airburst could form shock lamellae. It appears that there is some confusion by the authors regarding the meaning of the term “elastic limit” which is given in units of pressure, not velocity. In shock physics, we consider a quantity called “Hugoniot Elastic Limit” (HEL) from which the Rankine-Hugoniot equations can relate to other quantities, but the statement “if the velocity exceeds 7 km/s” is ambiguous because there are many different velocities associated with impacts. Does this 7 km/s refer to the impact velocity, shock velocity, or particle velocity? If shock velocity, does it refer to that associated with the shock wave in the air or in the rock? Likewise, does the particle velocity refer to that in the air or in the rock? Are you referring to the primary or reflected shocks, and what reference frame are you using if you are talking about a reflected shock wave? Depending on what you mean, by “velocity exceeds 7 km/s,” and the equation of state of the target rock, the assumed HEL could be different by many orders of magnitude. Given the apparent lack of basic shock physics understanding, lack of definition, and citation to a nonexistent paper, I request that another correction be issued and that this wrong information be removed.
          7. Quoting from page 54: “The airburst generated a pressure wave that toppled or snapped > 80 million trees, some up to 1-m in diameter[178].” This false claim needs to be corrected for reasons given in comment #63 above. Non-peer-reviewed young-earth creationist literature is not a valid source of scientific information, and there is no peer-reviewed source for either the claim that > 80 million trees were toppled or snapped, or that some were up to 1-m in diameter. This is simply fabricated and has no place in a peer reviewed paper.
          8. In my continuing tweet thread of threads that started this PubPeer article, I addressed an egregious misrepresentation of my own work by the authors. This is something that needs to be corrected so that such misinformation is not attributed to me because of these false claims about my work. Here’s a direct link to the relevant part of my Twitter thread:

          © Copyright Original Source

          Last edited by shunyadragon; 11-29-2023, 11:59 AM.
          Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
          Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
          But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

          go with the flow the river knows . . .

          Frank

          I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

          Comment

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