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Understanding the human brain reaches new hallmark

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  • Understanding the human brain reaches new hallmark



    Source: https://scitechdaily.com/new-comprehensive-map-ties-every-human-gene-to-its-function/



    New Comprehensive Map Ties Every Human Gene to Its Function

    TOPICS:GeneticsMITMIT’s Whitehead Institute
    By EVA FREDERICK, MIT WHITEHEAD INSTITUTE JUNE 11, 2022

    Scientists used their single-cell sequencing tool Perturb-seq on every expressed gene in the human genome, linking each to its job in the cell.

    Genetics research has advanced rapidly over the last few decades. For example, just a few months ago scientists announced the first complete, gap-free human genome sequencing. Now researchers have advanced again, creating the first comprehensive functional map of genes that are expressed in human cells.


    The Human Genome Project was an ambitious initiative to sequence every piece of human DNA. The project drew together collaborators from research institutions around the world, including MIT’s Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, and was finally completed in 2003. Now, over two decades later, MIT Professor Jonathan Weissman and colleagues have gone beyond the sequence to present the first comprehensive functional map of genes that are expressed in human cells. The data from this project, published online on June 9, 2022, in the journal Cell, ties each gene to its job in the cell, and is the culmination of years of collaboration on the single-cell sequencing method Perturb-seq.

    The data are available for other scientists to use. “It’s a big resource in the way the human genome is a big resource, in that you can go in and do discovery-based research,” says Weissman, who is also a member of the Whitehead Institute and an investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. “Rather than defining ahead of time what biology you’re going to be looking at, you have this map of the genotype-phenotype relationships and you can go in and screen the database without having to do any experiments.”

    CRISPR, which stands for clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats, a genome editing tool invented in 2009 made it easier than ever to edit DNA. It is easier, faster, less expensive, and more accurate than previous genetic editing methods.

    The screen allowed the researchers to delve into diverse biological questions. They used it to explore the cellular effects of genes with unknown functions, to investigate the response of mitochondria to stress, and to screen for genes that cause chromosomes to be lost or gained, a phenotype that has proved difficult to study in the past. “I think this dataset is going to enable all sorts of analyses that we haven’t even thought up yet by people who come from other parts of biology, and suddenly they just have this available to draw on,” says former Weissman Lab postdoc Tom Norman, a co-senior author of the paper.

    © Copyright Original Source


    Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
    Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
    But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

    go with the flow the river knows . . .

    Frank

    I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

  • #2
    That looks to be quite a big step they took.

    I'm always still in trouble again

    "You're by far the worst poster on TWeb" and "TWeb's biggest liar" --starlight (the guy who says Stalin was a right-winger)
    "Overall I would rate the withdrawal from Afghanistan as by far the best thing Biden's done" --Starlight
    "Of course, human life begins at fertilization that’s not the argument." --Tassman

    Comment


    • #3
      Originally posted by rogue06 View Post
      That looks to be quite a big step they took.
      I believe it based on years of research from different sources,
      Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
      Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
      But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

      go with the flow the river knows . . .

      Frank

      I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

      Comment


      • #4
        I wonder how accurate it is? I have a feeling they will be revising and changing that a lot as time goes on.

        Comment


        • #5
          Originally posted by Sparko View Post
          I wonder how accurate it is? I have a feeling they will be revising and changing that a lot as time goes on.
          Revisions are all but inevitable given that not everyone's brain operates exactly the same way.

          I'm always still in trouble again

          "You're by far the worst poster on TWeb" and "TWeb's biggest liar" --starlight (the guy who says Stalin was a right-winger)
          "Overall I would rate the withdrawal from Afghanistan as by far the best thing Biden's done" --Starlight
          "Of course, human life begins at fertilization that’s not the argument." --Tassman

          Comment


          • #6
            Originally posted by rogue06 View Post
            Revisions are all but inevitable given that not everyone's brain operates exactly the same way.
            I believe at the gene level their function would be likely the same most of the time. It is potentially gene differences, relationships and factors that would make the difference.

            Yes revisions and refinements are inevitable.
            Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
            Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
            But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

            go with the flow the river knows . . .

            Frank

            I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

            Comment


            • #7
              How does mapping every human gene equate to better understanding of the human brain?

              Comment


              • #8
                Originally posted by Sparko View Post
                How does mapping every human gene equate to better understanding of the human brain?
                Understanding the function concerning treating certain types of neurological diseases and loose of neurological function. One possible way is using this knowledge to develop neurological function to artificial limbs, hearing and sye sight.
                Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
                Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
                But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

                go with the flow the river knows . . .

                Frank

                I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

                Comment


                • #9
                  Originally posted by Sparko View Post
                  How does mapping every human gene equate to better understanding of the human brain?
                  Looking at what each gene does will go along way in understanding how our brain evolved. Just imagine if they find the equivalent of the Hox gene that altered brain structure.

                  I'm always still in trouble again

                  "You're by far the worst poster on TWeb" and "TWeb's biggest liar" --starlight (the guy who says Stalin was a right-winger)
                  "Overall I would rate the withdrawal from Afghanistan as by far the best thing Biden's done" --Starlight
                  "Of course, human life begins at fertilization that’s not the argument." --Tassman

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Originally posted by rogue06 View Post
                    Looking at what each gene does will go along way in understanding how our brain evolved. Just imagine if they find the equivalent of the Hox gene that altered brain structure.
                    I get that, but this sounds like so much more. They said they have mapped every single gene in human DNA. That's the whole body. So why name the thread Understanding the Human Brain, rather than Understanding Human Body?

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      Originally posted by Sparko View Post

                      I get that, but this sounds like so much more. They said they have mapped every single gene in human DNA. That's the whole body. So why name the thread Understanding the Human Brain, rather than Understanding Human Body?
                      I assume that's the part that shuny wants to emphasize.

                      I'm always still in trouble again

                      "You're by far the worst poster on TWeb" and "TWeb's biggest liar" --starlight (the guy who says Stalin was a right-winger)
                      "Overall I would rate the withdrawal from Afghanistan as by far the best thing Biden's done" --Starlight
                      "Of course, human life begins at fertilization that’s not the argument." --Tassman

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Originally posted by Sparko View Post
                        How does mapping every human gene equate to better understanding of the human brain?
                        The present research on neurological diseases, injuries and other health issues is to identify the part or area of the brain is involved like forms of Dementia and Alzheimers is to understand the regions and areas of the brains involved. We know alzheimers and various forms of dementia are related to genetics and family history. If we can determine the genes involved in inherited variations we can better treat and prevent some variations these diseases..

                        Source: https://www.alz.org/alzheimers-dementia/what-is-alzheimers/causes-and-risk-factors?utm_source=google&utm_medium=paidsearch&utm_campaign=google_grants&utm_content=alzheimers&gclid=CjwKCAjw46CVBhB1EiwAgy6M4hzsb8cbA-oYYGGiPQyN2TydRZUqr8aENioUzGIBY0YR0hROWkIpdxoCWZoQAvD_BwE



                        Genetics (heredity) Scientists know genes are involved in Alzheimer’s. Two categories of genes influence whether a person develops a disease: risk genes and deterministic genes. Alzheimer's genes have been found in both categories. It is estimated that less than 1% of Alzheimer’s cases are caused by deterministic genes (genes that cause a disease, rather than increase the risk of developing a disease).

                        © Copyright Original Source




                        Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
                        Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
                        But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

                        go with the flow the river knows . . .

                        Frank

                        I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

                        Comment

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