Announcement

Collapse

Natural Science 301 Guidelines

This is an open forum area for all members for discussions on all issues of science and origins. This area will and does get volatile at times, but we ask that it be kept to a dull roar, and moderators will intervene to keep the peace if necessary. This means obvious trolling and flaming that becomes a problem will be dealt with, and you might find yourself in the doghouse.

As usual, Tweb rules apply. If you haven't read them now would be a good time.

Forum Rules: Here
See more
See less

Ancient Covid?

Collapse
X
 
  • Filter
  • Time
  • Show
Clear All
new posts

  • Ancient Covid?

    Well this is interesting...


    Source: Ancient RNA virus epidemics occurred frequently during human evolution

    • Genome adaptations may offer insight into a viral epidemic as far back as 25,000 years.
    • Several lines of evidence point to a coronavirus or similar virus that emerged among the ancestors of East Asian people.
    • Identifying ancient viral activity may uncover the potential of evolutionary genomic methods to predict and combat future pandemics.

    A team of scientists, which researchers at the University of Arizona in Tucson and the University of Adelaide in South Australia co-led, delved into human genomes to find a correlation between ancient coronavirus epidemics and past adaptation in modern humans.

    They hope that understanding the effect of past pandemics on genetic mutations will give scientists more “ammunition” in the arms race against SARS-CoV-2 variants.

    Yassine Souilmi, Ph.D., the lead author of the paper, is a postdoctoral research associate at the Australian Centre for Ancient DNA. He and his fellow researchers published their findings in the June 2021 edition of Current Biology.

    The authors explain in their article:

    Here, we apply evolutionary analyses to human genomic datasets to recover selection events involving tens of human genes that interact with coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, that likely started more than 20,000 years ago.


    VIPs and RNA viruses

    Throughout human history, positive natural selection has often targeted virus-interacting proteins (VIPs). VIPs either work in building immunity or get hijacked by viruses.

    This natural selection has persisted over the past 50,000 years, especially around VIPs that react to RNA viruses, such as coronaviruses.

    According to Souilmi and his team:

    The accumulated evidence suggests that ancient RNA virus epidemics have occurred frequently during human evolution; however, we currently do not know whether selection has made a substantial contribution to the evolution of human genes that interact more specifically with coronaviruses.


    Investigating VIP adaptations

    Souilmi’s team culled genetic data from the 1000 Genomes Project, a vast catalog of human genetic variations.

    Two statistical analyses detected genetic signals known as selective sweeps.

    The researchers looked for selective sweep modifications among more than 400 VIPs that interact with coronaviruses (CoV-VIPS). They investigated data from across 26 populations.

    Relying on evidence that VIPs are what viruses harness to take over host cells, they focused on these genes. They also took this approach because VIPs tend to exert a greater functional influence on viruses compared with other proteins.

    Sweep signals more than 900 generations

    The scientists discovered a pattern of antiviral modifications in sweep signals at 42 CoV-VIPs in five East Asian populations. This enrichment did not appear in other populations.

    The team reported:

    …[O]ur results are consistent with the emergence of a viral epidemic… ∼25,000 years (28 years per generation) ago that drove a burst of strong positive selection in East Asia. [These] selection events […] clearly predate the estimated split of different East Asian populations included in the 1000 Genomes Project from their shared ancestral population.


    The observed mutations may have steadily increased in frequency until about 200 generations, or an estimated 5,000 years, ago.

    Also, the CoV-VIP proteins demonstrate antiviral and proviral effects and variations that affect SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and COVID-19 severity in the current British population.

    However, the paper notes that such adaptations in certain human populations do not imply that those populations are more susceptible to viral epidemics.

    Medical News Today asked Martin Bachmann, Ph.D., an immunologist and professor of vaccinology at the University of Oxford’s Jenner Institute in the United Kingdom and the University of Bern in Switzerland, for his perspective on this research:

    "For me, it is quite stunning that you can analyze epidemics from 20,000 years ago without actually looking at a sample that is older than a few years. It shows that there is an awful lot of information buried in the genome of the whole population rather than individual genomes."

    Harnessing evolutionary information to fight COVID-19

    Souilmi and his fellow researchers anticipate that their findings will assist in developing drugs and therapies.

    Currently, 11 drugs in use or in clinical trials target four of the 42 CoV-VIP genes that the team analyzed.

    MNT also spoke with William Schaffner, M.D., professor of infectious diseases at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, TN.

    Schaffner also hopes that this kind of research will lead to medical interventions "so that we can weather the pandemic and begin to control it in a much safer way than letting the virus itself have its way with us."

    The professor noted that to develop genetic protection against the ancient virus, the East Asian populations likely faced a very high death rate. Building natural immunity comes at a high price that the modern world might avoid with scientific breakthroughs.

    The study’s limitations

    Souilmi and his co-authors caution that the datasets that they used in some of their evaluations derived from modern populations with different ancestries than the East Asian subsets where the CoV-VIP genes appeared.

    Ancient DNA samples might validate the progression of CoV-VIP mutations, but they are yet to be discovered.

    The researchers also note that their population genomics approach could not pinpoint the causal variants for the CoV-VIP proteins that they examined in the East Asian ancestors.

    They mention the possibility that a different virus using similar VIPs as coronaviruses might have sparked the adaptations they observed.

    It is worth noting that one of the study’s authors is a consultant with Maze Therapeutics and Interline Therapeutics and has received stocks from them. They are also a shareholder of Tenaya Therapeutics. The other authors declared no competing interests.



    Source

    © Copyright Original Source



    The entire paper, An ancient viral epidemic involving host coronavirus interacting genes more than 20,000 years ago in East Asia can be read in its entirety by clicking on the hyperlink provided, and the "abstract" is available below

    Highlights

    •Ancient viral epidemics can be identified through adaptation in host genomes
    •Genomes in East Asia bear the signature of an ∼25,000-year-old viral epidemic
    •Functional analysis supports an ancient corona- or related virus epidemic

    Summary

    The current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has emphasized the vulnerability of human populations to novel viral pressures, despite the vast array of epidemiological and biomedical tools now available. Notably, modern human genomes contain evolutionary information tracing back tens of thousands of years, which may help identify the viruses that have impacted our ancestors—pointing to which viruses have future pandemic potential. Here, we apply evolutionary analyses to human genomic datasets to recover selection events involving tens of human genes that interact with coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, that likely started more than 20,000 years ago. These adaptive events were limited to the population ancestral to East Asian populations. Multiple lines of functional evidence support an ancient viral selective pressure, and East Asia is the geographical origin of several modern coronavirus epidemics. An arms race with an ancient coronavirus, or with a different virus that happened to use similar interactions as coronaviruses with human hosts, may thus have taken place in ancestral East Asian populations. By learning more about our ancient viral foes, our study highlights the promise of evolutionary information to better predict the pandemics of the future. Importantly, adaptation to ancient viral epidemics in specific human populations does not necessarily imply any difference in genetic susceptibility between different human populations, and the current evidence points toward an overwhelming impact of socioeconomic factors in the case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


    So coronaviruses may have been infecting humans for tens of thousands of years.





    I'm always still in trouble again

    "You're by far the worst poster on TWeb" and "TWeb's biggest liar" --starlight (the guy who says Stalin was a right-winger)
    "Overall I would rate the withdrawal from Afghanistan as by far the best thing Biden's done" --Starlight
    "Of course, human life begins at fertilization that’s not the argument." --Tassman

  • #2
    It is not only likely, but certain all the viruses today evolved with humans for hundreds of thousands of years.

    There is an apparent inherited degree of immunity among the populations of Southeast Asia where Covid like viruses are likely endemic for at least thousands of years.
    Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
    Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
    But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

    go with the flow the river knows . . .

    Frank

    I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

    Comment


    • #3
      Originally posted by shunyadragon View Post
      It is not only likely, but certain all the viruses today evolved with humans for hundreds of thousands of years.

      There is an apparent inherited degree of immunity among the populations of Southeast Asia where Covid like viruses are likely endemic for at least thousands of years.
      Is there actual concrete evidence of a "inherited degree of immunity" such as higher survival rates among those who get it, or far more "minor cases," than seen elsewhere?

      I'm always still in trouble again

      "You're by far the worst poster on TWeb" and "TWeb's biggest liar" --starlight (the guy who says Stalin was a right-winger)
      "Overall I would rate the withdrawal from Afghanistan as by far the best thing Biden's done" --Starlight
      "Of course, human life begins at fertilization that’s not the argument." --Tassman

      Comment


      • #4
        Originally posted by shunyadragon View Post
        It is not only likely, but certain all the viruses today evolved with humans for hundreds of thousands of years.
        Nope. modern humans hadn't left Africa in any significant numbers until about 60,000 years ago, and human populations were relatively small, sparse, and limited to favorable environments until about 12,000 years ago when the last ice age ended.

        We're currently exposing ourselves to viruses that have no significant history with humans.

        Originally posted by shunyadragon View Post
        There is an apparent inherited degree of immunity among the populations of Southeast Asia where Covid like viruses are likely endemic for at least thousands of years.
        There is absolutely no evidence for this. It was suggested early in the pandemic, but it's become clear that even having had direct exposure to SARS-CoV-2 doesn't necessarily generate a protective immune response. Exposure to a more distantly related virus would necessarily provide even less protection.

        Also, for the most part, you don't "inherit immunity." * You develop it after exposure.


        * The exception being that there are some variants in the innate immune response that float around in the human population.
        "Any sufficiently advanced stupidity is indistinguishable from trolling."

        Comment


        • #5
          Originally posted by TheLurch View Post
          Nope. modern humans hadn't left Africa in any significant numbers until about 60,000 years ago, and human populations were relatively small, sparse, and limited to favorable environments until about 12,000 years ago when the last ice age ended.

          We're currently exposing ourselves to viruses that have no significant history with humans.


          There is absolutely no evidence for this. It was suggested early in the pandemic, but it's become clear that even having had direct exposure to SARS-CoV-2 doesn't necessarily generate a protective immune response. Exposure to a more distantly related virus would necessarily provide even less protection.

          Also, for the most part, you don't "inherit immunity." * You develop it after exposure.


          * The exception being that there are some variants in the innate immune response that float around in the human population.
          I documented this in a previous thread and you ignored it and refused to respond.
          Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
          Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
          But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

          go with the flow the river knows . . .

          Frank

          I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

          Comment


          • #6
            Originally posted by shunyadragon View Post

            I documented this in a previous thread and you ignored it and refused to respond.
            Linky?

            I'm always still in trouble again

            "You're by far the worst poster on TWeb" and "TWeb's biggest liar" --starlight (the guy who says Stalin was a right-winger)
            "Overall I would rate the withdrawal from Afghanistan as by far the best thing Biden's done" --Starlight
            "Of course, human life begins at fertilization that’s not the argument." --Tassman

            Comment


            • #7
              Originally posted by rogue06 View Post
              Linky?
              I did this in detail several references in the past, no response. DO YOUR OWN HOMEWORK.
              Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
              Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
              But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

              go with the flow the river knows . . .

              Frank

              I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

              Comment


              • #8
                Originally posted by shunyadragon View Post

                I did this in detail several references in the past, no response. DO YOUR OWN HOMEWORK.
                Ah. Okay then.


                I was just asking for the link where you posted it previously.

                I'm always still in trouble again

                "You're by far the worst poster on TWeb" and "TWeb's biggest liar" --starlight (the guy who says Stalin was a right-winger)
                "Overall I would rate the withdrawal from Afghanistan as by far the best thing Biden's done" --Starlight
                "Of course, human life begins at fertilization that’s not the argument." --Tassman

                Comment


                • #9
                  Originally posted by shunyadragon View Post

                  I documented this in a previous thread and you ignored it and refused to respond.
                  It's not my job to respond to every instance of saying something that's mistaken on TWeb. You made the argument here again. I responded here. If you don't want to support your own argument, that's your choice, but it means that anyone who reads this will only see the indications i gave of why it's unlikely to be right.
                  "Any sufficiently advanced stupidity is indistinguishable from trolling."

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Originally posted by rogue06 View Post
                    Ah. Okay then.


                    I was just asking for the link where you posted it previously.
                    Not that easy to find, but nonetheless here is a general article that addresses this. I may post more. I previously cited scientific articles that addressed the issue of a number of viruses where regional populations developed resistance over generations. I believe this may have contributed to the lower infection rates all across East Asia.


                    Source: https://worldcrunch.com/coronavirus/regional-immunity-why-asia-has-avoided-the-worst-of-covid-19



                    Regional Immunity? Why Asia Has Avoided The Worst Of COVID-19

                    "However, our patients, who were infected with SARS-CoV-2, immediately show high levels of IgG antibodies and low levels of IgM", explains Tatsuhiko Kodama. "So we deduced that their system reacts as if it had already been attacked in the past by a coronavirus of the same type."

                    According to the researcher, East Asia populations have therefore naturally developed a form of resistance to SARS-CoV-2. This is because they have already been exposed, over the course of their lives, to a multitude of other less ferocious cousins of the coronavirus. "It's not just MERS or SARS, but many other viruses of a similar type which are circulating," he says. "This explains why the death toll is so low in East Asia."

                    Carrying this reasoning one step further, other Japanese experts are wondering if this exposure to past epidemics over the course of thousands of years may have generated genetic differences between the inhabitants of Asia and other populations in the rest of the world.

                    A "Coronavirus Task Force" gathering several universities in the Archipelago thus recovered the data of 500 people who were infected with COVID-19. The team divided this representative sample into two groups: One with people who have developed very serious symptoms and the other with patients who have only experienced very mild symptoms.

                    The researchers then organized the sequencing of the genomes of all these 500 positive cases. They then compared some of the genes which are involved in the development of a response to the attack of the virus and analyzed the type of the "HLA" of each patient. This group of molecules, which is located on the surface of cells, acts as the control tower of the immune system and is very different from one person to another.



                    Africans are better protected than Europeans against some types of malaria.


                    "They are very different in Asians and Caucasians," points out Tasuku Honjo, an immunotherapy specialist who won the Nobel Prize in medicine in 2018. "Yet this group of molecules plays a very important role in the identification of a pathogenic agent." If the Japanese team hasn't yet delivered its conclusions, it thinks it will be able in the coming months to shed some light on the racial factors involved in patients' reactions to the SARS-CoV-2 infection.

                    For decades, researchers have identified differences in how populations around the world react to certain infectious diseases. "For example, Africans are better protected than Europeans against some types of malaria," argues Lluis Quintana-Murci, population geneticist at the Institut Pasteur and professor at the Collège de France. "Due to natural selection, they have different genetic defense mechanisms," explains the scientist, who adds that current populations, on each continent, descend from multiple generations who have survived past epidemics.

                    A recent study carried out among the inhabitants of Cape Verde, an island group off the coast of Senegal, has shown that a genetic variant allowing increased resistance to malaria had become common in the population, since Portuguese sailors first established themselves there with African slaves 500 years ago. Half of the inhabitants of the islands now carry a gene variant which helps reduce the amount of receptors that the parasites use to enter the sick person's cells. "Some resistance factors can be part of our genes," Lluis Quintana-Murci says.

                    Although compelling, this genetic explanation isn't enough in the case of COVID-19, specialists admit. "In order to replicate, viruses must interact with hundreds of genes in the human genome," confirms David Enard of the University of Arizona. The researcher has recently co-authored a large American-Australian study which highlights a relative enrichment of around forty genes which have interacted with coronaviruses in populations of East Asia.

                    His teams believe that a natural selection, which was triggered 25,000 years ago by a large regional outbreak, caused these changes in East Asia's genetic structures. These modifications aren't present in the genes of populations from other continents. "But we can't conclude that there is a strong difference. These altered genes have very little effect in the whole process. We don't have proof yet of an Asian genetic immunity to COVID-19," insists Enard, who prefers the explanation of an immunity memory that certain populations who have already been exposed to other viruses could have developed.

                    The researcher hopes that these findings won't be politically misdirected to question the rules of social distancing or the wearing of masks, which have proven to be effective worldwide. "In the end, it will take years of research before we are really able to understand this pandemic," he says.

                    © Copyright Original Source



                    Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
                    Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
                    But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

                    go with the flow the river knows . . .

                    Frank

                    I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      Originally posted by shunyadragon View Post

                      Not that easy to find, but nonetheless here is a general article that addresses this. I may post more. I previously cited scientific articles that addressed the issue of a number of viruses where regional populations developed resistance over generations. I believe this may have contributed to the lower infection rates all across East Asia.
                      So, single anecdote, not peer reviewed.

                      In any case, people have looked found that the presence of a cross-reactive immune response that's generic for coranaviruses is typical of severe cases - unless it is also accompanied by antibodies specific to SARS-CoV-2.

                      Peer reviewed research:
                      https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S...showall%3Dtrue
                      "Any sufficiently advanced stupidity is indistinguishable from trolling."

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Originally posted by TheLurch View Post
                        So, single anecdote, not peer reviewed.

                        In any case, people have looked found that the presence of a cross-reactive immune response that's generic for coranaviruses is typical of severe cases - unless it is also accompanied by antibodies specific to SARS-CoV-2.

                        Peer reviewed research:
                        https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S...showall%3Dtrue
                        Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7796072/



                        A Southeast Asian Perspective on the COVID-19 Pandemic: Hemoglobin E (HbE)-Trait Confers Resistance Against COVID-19

                        Abstract

                        As of November 25, 2020, over 60 million people have been infected worldwide by COVID-19, causing almost 1.43 million deaths. Puzzling low incidence numbers and milder, non-fatal disease have been observed in Thailand and its Southeast (SE) Asian neighbors. Elusive genetic mechanisms might be operative, as a multitude of genetic factors are widely shared between the SE Asian populations, such as the more than 60 different thalassemia syndromes (principally dominated by the HbE trait). In this study, we have plotted COVID-19 infection and death rates in SE Asian (SEA) countries against heterozygote HbE and thalassemia carrier prevalence. COVID-19 infection and death incidence numbers appear inversely correlated with the prevalence of HbE and thalassemia heterozygote populations. We posit that the evolutionary protective effect of the HbE and other thalassemic variants against malaria and the dengue virus may extend its advantage to resistance to COVID-19 infection, as HbE heterozygote population prevalence appears to be positively correlated with immunity to COVID-19. Host immune system modulations induce antiviral interferon responses and alter structural protein integrity, thereby inhibiting cellular access and viral replication. These changes are possibly engendered by HbE carrier miRNAs. Proving this hypothesis is important, as it may shed light on the mechanism of viral resistance and lead to novel antiviral treatments. This development can thus guide decision-making and action to prevent COVID-19 infection.

                        Conclusions


                        We theorize that another “Amazing Thailand” attribute [62], an evolutionary HbE variant arising in Thailand through natural selection possibly around 2000 years ago in a malaria-endemic region, might hypothetically be providing its carriers survival advantages with resistance to malaria, dengue virus, and possibly also to COVID-19 infection [63]. Host immune system modulations induce antiviral interferon responses as well as alter structural protein integrity and inhibit cellular access and viral replication. These changes are possibly engendered by HbE/thalassemia carrier miRNAs. Proving the hypothesis is of importance, as it may shed light on the mechanisms of viral resistance and lead to novel antiviral treatments. These developments can guide decision-making and action to prevent COVID-19 infection.

                        © Copyright Original Source



                        More to follow
                        Last edited by shunyadragon; 07-29-2021, 06:57 PM.
                        Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
                        Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
                        But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

                        go with the flow the river knows . . .

                        Frank

                        I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7403102/



                          Apparent difference in fatalities between Central Europe and East Asia due to SARS-COV-2 and COVID-19: Four hypotheses for possible explanation

                          Naoki Yamamotoa, and Georg Bauerb,c,

                          Conclusions

                          There is no doubt that Central Europe is much more affected by SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 than East Asia. The strong difference between East Asia and Central Europe cannot be explained by eventual differences in the frequency of testing, as this would only affect the number of detected cases per inhabitants, but not the number of deaths.

                          Our four hypothesis raised for possible explanation of the observed facts, i. e. 1) Differences in social behaviors and cultures of people in the two regions; 2) Possible outbreak of virulent viruses in Central Europe due to multiple viral infection, and the involvement of immuno-virological factors associated with it, 3) Possibility of corona resistance gene mutation occurring among East Asians as a result of long-term co-evolution of virus and host, and 4) possible involvement of hygienic factors include cultural and behavioral differences among Central European and East Asian people, virological factors and even anthropological issues involving human evolution.

                          We are convinced that the behavioral difference in human contact in both areas of the world can be considered to have a very important influence on the spread of the SARS-COV-2, as seen by the impressive positive effect of social distancing on the control of COVID-19 in Europe. This shows that hypothesis # 1 seems to be relevant to a significant degree for the differences between East Asia and Central Europe. However, hypothesis # 1 cannot explain the complete picture observed, as it would only have an impact on the number of cases in relation to the population, but not on the death rate of cases. As the death rates per cases are also lower in East Asia compared to Central Europe, mechanisms suggested in hypothesis # 2–4 might also contribute to the overall effect. In addition, mechanisms not included into our hypothesis might play essential roles and await to be defined in the future.

                          Essential parts of our hypotheses for which we have no direct supportive information so far can be experimentally verified or falsified in the future. These so far unresolved aspects are i) the possible existence of more virulent strains of SARS-COV-2 in Europe, ii) the effects of repeated infections, possibly in combination with iii) ADE, iv) polymorphism of ACE2 or some other genes such as TMPRSS2 [36] and ACE1 [19], [37], and their relation to the function of viral receptor.

                          COVID-19 positive cases are already over 5.3 million even at this point in total while number of people infected with SARS coronavirus-1 was only about 10,000. Considering its near-future expansion in developing areas such as Africa and South America, the new coronavirus may reach an even stronger impact than SARS-CoV-1. Moreover, this coronavirus is very easy to mutate due to its original properties. Taking these facts into account, this SARS-CoV-2 has the potential to persist in every corner of the world, has a great possibility of finding and adapting to the best environment in various climates and people’s lives, and becoming established in human society.

                          However, the pandemics have taught us some essentials for counteracting in the future. At the beginning of the outbreak of COVID-19 in Europe, the initial response, especially the delay in response to outbreaks (clusters), demographics, social behavior and lower testing capacity, etc. were sometimes very problematic in response to COVID-19. These experiences allowed states that were hit later by the pandemics, like Germany, to adjust countermeasures. In Germany, the federal and local governments have been involved in the fight against COVID-19 from an early stage, and especially with an emphasis on looking for signs of early onset, PCR testing of very large numbers of samples for free, and isolation of defined cases. The medical system had time to be prepared and intensive care beds equipped with artificial respirators were reserved for COVID-19 and increased in number. The needed specialized staff was trained. Social distancing guidelines were introduced and widely followed. This resulted in slow-down of the pandemic.

                          Therefore, we can be confident, that even if European corona strains were more virulent than Asian strains, or if Europeans were more susceptible to coronaviruses, people can overcome the corona pandemic with proper countermeasures and management.

                          © Copyright Original Source





                          Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
                          Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
                          But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

                          go with the flow the river knows . . .

                          Frank

                          I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            See the following for a comparison of cases, vaccinated and deaths by country.

                            https://www.csis.org/programs/southe...vid-19-tracker


                            Last edited by shunyadragon; 07-29-2021, 08:14 PM.
                            Glendower: I can call spirits from the vasty deep.
                            Hotspur: Why, so can I, or so can any man;
                            But will they come when you do call for them? Shakespeare’s Henry IV, Part 1, Act III:

                            go with the flow the river knows . . .

                            Frank

                            I do not know, therefore everything is in pencil.

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              Originally posted by shunyadragon View Post
                              Source: https://www.csis.org/programs/southeast-asia-program/projects/southeast-asia-covid-19-tracker



                              Cases last Deaths Totally % Fully Cases/
                              24hr Vacc. Vacc. Million
                              cases

                              World 196,095,694 538,256 4,189,011 1,106,354,858 14.2% 25,140
                              China 104,854 53 4,848 No Data No Data 73
                              USA 34,677,412 69,090 611,809 163,588,042 49.4% 104,765
                              Indonesia 3,331,206 43,479 90,552 19,103,162 7.1% 12,268
                              Philippines 1,566,667 4,247 27,401 6,311,060 6.0% 14,935
                              Vietnam 123,640 6,519 630 496,630 0.5% 1,294
                              Thailand 561,030 17,669 4,562 3,652,990 5.3% 8,084
                              Myanmar 284,099 4,980 8,210 1,527,284 2.9% 5,323
                              Malaysia 1,078,646 17,170 8,725 6,104,836 19.6% 34,572
                              Cambodia 75,917 765 1,350 4,626,648 28.9% 4,742
                              Laos 5,675 241 6 832,673 11.3% 771
                              Singapore 64,589 136 37 3,158,737 56.3% 11,509
                              Timor Leste 10,535 148 26 86,759 6.5% 7,863
                              Brunei 333 0 3 24,052 5.6% 777

                              © Copyright Original Source








                              Of those Southeastern Asian countries, the only one I'd trust at providing accurate numbers is Singapore and the conspicuously absent Taiwan.

                              I'm always still in trouble again

                              "You're by far the worst poster on TWeb" and "TWeb's biggest liar" --starlight (the guy who says Stalin was a right-winger)
                              "Overall I would rate the withdrawal from Afghanistan as by far the best thing Biden's done" --Starlight
                              "Of course, human life begins at fertilization that’s not the argument." --Tassman

                              Comment

                              Related Threads

                              Collapse

                              Topics Statistics Last Post
                              Started by rogue06, 09-18-2021, 08:59 AM
                              19 responses
                              87 views
                              0 likes
                              Last Post rogue06
                              by rogue06
                               
                              Started by Sparko, 09-15-2021, 11:13 AM
                              18 responses
                              68 views
                              0 likes
                              Last Post rogue06
                              by rogue06
                               
                              Started by rogue06, 09-14-2021, 07:34 AM
                              1 response
                              18 views
                              0 likes
                              Last Post rogue06
                              by rogue06
                               
                              Started by shunyadragon, 09-13-2021, 09:25 PM
                              11 responses
                              60 views
                              0 likes
                              Last Post rogue06
                              by rogue06
                               
                              Started by lee_merrill, 09-06-2021, 09:40 PM
                              19 responses
                              107 views
                              0 likes
                              Last Post shunyadragon  
                              Working...
                              X