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Why The Sermon on the Mount?

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  • Why The Sermon on the Mount?

    What is the point of this message?

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    What is the point of the sermon? Let’s plunge into the Deeper Waters and find out.

    When looking at eschatology in the Gospels, one of the main points to establish is really the kingship of Jesus. For that now, we start a look at the Sermon on the Mount. Many of us look at the sermon and see a great list of ethical principles. It is that, but it is so much more.

    We are in an election year and so this year, our candidates for whatever office will be going around stating what things are going to be like if they win their election. Jesus is doing the same kind of thing in this sermon. He is not just telling people how to live. He is telling them what matters most in the Kingdom of God and how you are to live in the Kingdom.

    The sermon ends with the people being amazed because Jesus spoke with authority. How? He is a king and He is speaking as a king and He is laying down the law. This is quite literal. Throughout the sermon, Jesus is doing something radical. He is speaking on the Law and declaring what is really going to happen.

    What’s so amazing about that? Didn’t the rabbis speak on the Law? Yes, but they always pointed to another authority. Jesus doesn’t do that. Jesus is basically getting up and saying “I’m in charge and I don’t need anyone else to back what I say.” He speaks from His own position and authority.

    It’s so startling that a Jewish scholar like Jacob Neusner looked at it once and said, “Who do you think you are? God?” Well, yes. He did. He thought He alone had the authority to speak this way.

    Jesus’s Kingdom is a reversal of what most kings would give. This is not about how to build up the best army to go after Rome. If anything, the only time Rome is spoken of, it is of how one can better serve a Roman soldier or how one should retaliate from an insult from a Roman soldier or any demand from such a soldier. This is not what you expect from your Messiah.

    Furthermore, if you seek to follow the ethical principles, you are falling short if you do not follow the king who gave them. As Lewis said, Jesus is not just coming claiming to be a good moral teacher. He’s claiming to be the King of all. Besides, as Lewis said, we have had a penchant of not listening to our moral teachers and if Jesus was the best one, all the more reason for us to not listen to Him.

    So over the next few days, I plan to look over the sermon and see it from a kingly perspective. I hope you’ll join me.

    In Christ,
    Nick Peters

  • #2
    "I am not angered that the Moral Majority boys campaign against abortion. I am angry when the same men who say, "Save OUR children" bellow "Build more and bigger bombers." That's right! Blast the children in other nations into eternity, or limbless misery as they lay crippled from "OUR" bombers! This does not jell." - Leonard Ravenhill

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    • #3
      Who is giving the sermon?

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      Who is it that is giving this sermon? Let’s plunge into the Deeper Waters and find out.

      In looking at eschatology in the Gospels, one thing to establish is Jesus’s view of Himself as the king of Israel and yet also as the priest of Israel. I said last time that we would be looking at the Sermon on the Mount. Today, I am going to really start off by looking at that sermon.

      Now the question of who gave it sounds like a no-brainer. Jesus gave it. If that’s all we’re really asking by the question, then this blog is pretty much done. The question though is more how did the person who gave it see Himself and also how is Matthew presenting Him?

      Matthew constantly presents Jesus in a style that is very Jewish. His book is laid out in a fivefold format much like the Pentateuch would have been seen in. It’s split between teaching and acting. At the start, we have Jesus going to John the Baptist to be baptized going under the water. After going through the water, He enters the wilderness for 40 days and nights to be tempted.

      Does this sound like any story a Jew would know? Definitely. It sounds like Israel passing through the waters of the Red Sea (In a miraculous way, of course) and then going into the wilderness where they were tempted for forty years. What comes in all of that? The giving of the Law. Lo and behold, what do we find in chapter five?

      Seeing the crowds, he went up on the mountain, and when he sat down, his disciples came to him.

      2 And he opened his mouth and taught them, saying:

      It might seem like a given to say He opened His mouth to teach them. What else is He going to do? Sign language? However, Matthew chose to point this out for a reason. What is that? To make us think about the Law coming from the mouth of YHWH in the Old Testament.

      Jesus then gets up and He starts expounding the Law. He starts explaining what is meant by it. We can say this is consistent with Jesus because one thing historical Jesus scholars note about Him is that He never really pointed to anyone else’s authority aside from God Himself. Jesus did not need to address any other rabbis. If all you had was the Gospels, you wouldn’t even know other rabbis existed.

      Jesus is treading on sacred ground. He is handling the Law and saying that He alone has the authority. He alone can go up on the mountain and deliver the law to the people. He is the new Moses leading His people. He is the new priest. He is the new king.

      He will also speak as what He says has divine authority and if He really thinks that, then how does He see Himself? You could say that any prophet in the Old Testament would do the same, but Jesus never goes “Thus sayeth the Lord.” He says quite the opposite. He says “You have heard it was said…., but I say to you.” The prophets didn’t speak like that.

      So as we go through the sermon, let’s remember this is the priest telling us how to live and this is the king looking at His subjects saying this is how my reign is going to be. What will it be like? Looking at the sermon in future installments will tell us.

      In Christ,
      Nick Peters

      Comment


      • #4
        Who is blessed in the Kingdom?

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        Who is blessed in the Sermon on the Mount? Let’s plunge into the Deeper Waters and find out.

        Eschatology has brought us to looking at Jesus as king in the Gospels starting with Matthew and we’re looking at the Sermon on the Mount. If Jesus is stating His role in this sermon as laying down a new way of living, then who is it that He is going to include? The fascinating idea here is that Jesus goes for the ones that society rejects.

        There’s a funny little saying that speaks of God’s choice in the Jewish people and says, “How odd of God to choose the Jews.” It goes on to say, “But odder still are those who reject whom God chose.” In choosing the Jewish people, God did not choose a grand and prestigious people. He chose an old man who while rich did not have an heir and through him began His plan.

        Like Father, like Son. When Jesus goes through and announces His citizens in the Kingdom, He picks the ones that are rejected. The rich and elite are not mentioned in this list. The Pharisees and Sadducees are left out. Jesus welcomes the ones that are even outcasts in Israel.

        We see this in His life in the Gospels. Who does Jesus choose to hang out with? Prostitutes and tax collectors. Most of his apostles are fishermen and other common men including one of those tax collectors. We don’t know of any of them being part of the elite.

        Actually, all of these people will also get what they want. Are you mourning? You’re going to be comforted. Are you hungering and thirsting for righteousness? You’re going to get it. Are you one of the downtrodden, the meek? You’re going to get the whole world.

        This is a major contrast to the Roman Empire of the time who would want the best of the best in their kingdom. Paul’s commander who had him flogged said he paid a lot of money for his citizenship. The Roman Empire didn’t take being a citizen lightly. You had to show you had earned it. In Jesus’s kingdom, it’s those who know they have not earned it who are the most worthy.

        Think you’re not good enough for the kingdom? You’re right. You’re not. Jesus welcomes you into the kingdom if you come to Him. You don’t have to really do anything to enter the kingdom except acknowledge that Jesus alone can get you into it and come to Him for that.

        This part does culminate in persecution. I want to save that for another time. It requires its own focus, but for now, I simply want us to remember that God has a habit of picking those who the world rejects. He hasn’t changed.

        In Christ,
        Nick Peters

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        • #5
          What about persecution?

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          What does it mean to be persecuted? Let’s plunge into the Deeper Waters and find out.

          I wanted to save these verses in the Sermon for further looking. In these, Jesus talks about persecution, so let’s look at them.

          11 “Blessed are you when people insult you, persecute you and falsely say all kinds of evil against you because of me. 12 Rejoice and be glad, because great is your reward in heaven, for in the same way they persecuted the prophets who were before you.

          So many Christians I meet today too quickly throw out the word persecution. The insulting and saying things falsely can fit today, but persecution is something much more severe. Much of what we call persecution today does a disservice to those people who really are persecuted.

          There are many countries today in the world where becoming a Christian is putting your life on the line. Think of places like Muslim countries or countries with a bent towards Communism, like China. If you become a Christian in those countries, you are putting a big bullseye on you.

          Persecution is not someone making fun of you for being a Christian alone. That is not sufficient. It’s also not persecution if people don’t like you for other reasons, such as the manner in which you present the gospel. If you come across as a rude jerk and that’s not liked by some people, that does not equal persecution.

          Now we are getting into this some, such as the florists and the cake makers who are not allowed to live out their conscience in their own personal businesses. I personally anticipate this country is going to become more and more anti-Christian if the tide is not turned around soon. However, we are nowhere near the level of a Muslim or a Communist country yet.

          For people in those countries, we definitely need to offer our prayer and support and we need to consider if we take Jesus as seriously as they do. If your child goes down and kneels at the altar and accepts Jesus as their Lord and savior, you’re likely to go on Facebook and share the good news. Would you do the same in one of those countries if it meant that your child could become a target of the government for doing such? Probably not.

          Do we take Jesus as seriously? Do we need to get to the point of persecution to do such? I’m one who thinks it could do the church good to get some persecution for what we do. We would get to see who’s serious about Christianity and who isn’t. It’s easy to state you’re a Christian when no one has a gun pointing at your head. It’s not so easy when they don’t.

          Right now, we have it good if we live in America comparatively speaking. The question is what are we doing with it? Imagine if the apostle Paul had the access to all that we have today. What would he be doing with it? By contrast, what are we doing with it?

          In many countries, people are willing to die for the gospel, which is excellent. We need that willingness. In this country, we don’t have that yet, at least not on a mass scale. So now, let’s ask ourselves a different question and this is one that’s actually much harder to ask than “Are you willing to die for Jesus?”

          “Are you willing to live for Jesus?”

          In Christ,
          Nick Peters

          Comment


          • #6
            Are we salt and light?

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            What does it mean to be salt and light? Let’s plunge into the Deeper Waters and find out.

            As we continue looking at the sermon, we come to the account of salt and light. Both of these are things that stand out and enhance something. I still remember as a kid going to McDonald’s and getting the fries and going crazy with salt on them. It’s still a great treat to have. As for light, in our age we have more access to light in a way. After all, how many of us when we’re walking through our homes at night or outside at night pull out our phones and turn on the flashlight feature?

            If a ship is out at sea and the crew is wondering where to go at night, a lighthouse can be seen from 20 miles away if its light is on. That can give great hope to those out at sea. Just a sliver of light can make a difference. Light is a way of representing hope.

            And Jesus tells us we’re to be like salt and light.

            Unless you have some dietary restriction, most of us like some salt on certain foods of ours. If I fix fillets at night, I put salt and pepper on them. Fix a pizza? Not at all. French fries without salt though seems unthinkable.

            Light is specifically meant to be seen. That’s why we’re compared to a city on a hill. Many of us think that we should hide our good deeds. Now, we certainly shouldn’t do something to be seen, but that doesn’t mean we hide away and avoid doing good deeds. We need to do them and then in line with a proper interpretation of 1 Peter 3:15, explain that we do good deeds because of the example of Jesus.

            Notably, Jesus says to do these things so people will praise your Father in Heaven. Those who do this are children of God. They are part of the Kingdom. They have not earned it. They have instead demonstrated where their loyalty lies.

            Jesus’s call for citizens of the Kingdom is to go out and do something. Be an enhancement in society, as salt is on food. Be a beacon of hope, as light is in the world. Make the world a better place by your devotion to Christ. With all that is going on now, and as I type this there are riots going on over George Floyd, we need that indeed.

            In Christ,
            Nick Peters

            Comment


            • #7
              What does it mean to fulfill the Law?

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              What did Jesus mean when He said He came to fulfill the Law? Let’s plunge into the Deeper Waters and find out.

              This is one of the most debated passages really. It leads to debates about the view of the Law in the Old Testament and its place in the life of Christians today. Let’s look at the verses. It’s Matthew 5:17-18.

              “Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them. 18 For truly I tell you, until heaven and earth disappear, not the smallest letter, not the least stroke of a pen, will by any means disappear from the Law until everything is accomplished.”

              Okay. Well did Jesus abolish the Law for us? One thing to keep in mind is that Gentiles were NEVER under the Law to begin with. This was a debate in Acts 15 and yet these words of Jesus were never brought up.

              Okay, but what about Jews? Jews were under the Law and yet Paul and Peter both apparently lived like Gentiles at times at least. Why would they do that?

              This gets us to the idea of the fulfillment of the Law. Jesus is not doing away with the Law. He is fulfilling what God really wanted. God really wanted righteousness in His people. The Law could change their outward behavior and while that can change hearts eventually, that normally doesn’t last long term. What is needed is a heart change.

              This is what Jesus came to bring about. What He is describing in His kingdom is what happens when that heart change takes place. When we see the Kingdom coming, we will see more than just outward motions. Jesus’s commands in the sermon constantly talk about the status of the heart over the actions.

              Jesus fulfilled the Law in that He met its righteous requirements. That doesn’t mean the Law is useless to us today. We see the nature of God revealed in the Law and there are still moral principles in the Law most everyone holds to today. Most of us do agree that you should not steal or you should not murder, for example.

              In future entries, we will look at the righteousness that is demanded in the Kingdom. It won’t be my favorite part to look at either. We all fall short.

              In Christ,
              Nick Peters

              Comment


              • #8
                Originally posted by Apologiaphoenix View Post
                “Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them. 18 For truly I tell you, until heaven and earth disappear, not the smallest letter, not the least stroke of a pen, will by any means disappear from the Law until everything is accomplished.”
                A decade or so ago when I did a thorough analysis of Jesus's teachings in the gospels, this passage stood out to be as being by far the most inconsistent with the rest. All of the rest of Jesus's teachings in the gospels are consistent with a social reformer who is rejecting the ritual purity requirements of the Law and is focusing on the morality of helping those in need. It actually surprised me how much close to everything was consistent with that one theme, and if I were doing a Jesus Seminar style bible where the passages were colored by how likely Jesus was to have said them I would be fine giving the vast vast majority of the teachings recorded in the gospels pretty high likelihoods of being close to something said by the historical Jesus. This passage though... it's the one really glaring exception that stands in strong opposition to everything else Jesus focuses on, so I really have to regard it as a later addition.

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                • #9
                  Originally posted by Starlight View Post
                  A decade or so ago when I did a thorough analysis of Jesus's teachings in the gospels, this passage stood out to be as being by far the most inconsistent with the rest. All of the rest of Jesus's teachings in the gospels are consistent with a social reformer who is rejecting the ritual purity requirements of the Law and is focusing on the morality of helping those in need. It actually surprised me how much close to everything was consistent with that one theme, and if I were doing a Jesus Seminar style bible where the passages were colored by how likely Jesus was to have said them I would be fine giving the vast vast majority of the teachings recorded in the gospels pretty high likelihoods of being close to something said by the historical Jesus. This passage though... it's the one really glaring exception that stands in strong opposition to everything else Jesus focuses on, so I really have to regard it as a later addition.
                  What is inconsistent about it?

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Originally posted by Starlight View Post
                    A decade or so ago when I did a thorough analysis of Jesus's teachings in the gospels,
                    You mean that time you breezed through them with a jaundiced fundy atheist eyeball, Donald?

                    All of the rest of Jesus's teachings in the gospels are consistent with a social reformer who is rejecting the ritual purity requirements of the Law and is focusing on the morality of helping those in need.
                    Good night you are stupid. Adherence to a contract/covenant was a simple and straightforward matter of honor no matter what new contracts/covenants were in the offing. Can the tiny tendrils of brains you possess wrap themselves around this very simple point? Just because a law against e.g., possession of less than 10 ounces of weed is rescinded effective on June 1, 2020 does not mean that on May 31, 2020, you can walk around with 9 ounces of weed and claim that the law allows it. I use the example as relational because your scholarly competence and reasoning is approximately that of someone high on weed.


                    It actually surprised me how much close to everything was consistent with that one theme, and if I were doing a Jesus Seminar style bible where the passages were colored
                    I can well imagine you doing any project that involves coloring. Use the orange one on your face to match your tanned teacher in like-thought.

                    This passage though... it's the one really glaring exception that stands in strong opposition to everything else Jesus focuses on, so I really have to regard it as a later addition.
                    Well you know, Starscream, it just MIGHT have been, you know, a response to the same charge leveled later against Paul, and earlier against Jesus, that they were compromising the law by their behavior! Maybe you're too much of a Trump-brain to grasp that. Before you cough up an answer, make sure you take account of the principles of honor associated with obeying a covenant that is still in effect even while the teaching of reform/renewal is in process. Try to resist inhaling hallucinogens before you analyze this time.
                    Last edited by jpholding; 06-04-2020, 11:18 AM.

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      When I saw JPH was the final poster in this thread, I predicted two things... a post choc full of insults and a post providing no useful substance. Unsurprisingly I was right on both. Some people just don't change. I found this behaviour of his pretty embarrassing back when I was a Christian and member of the Cadre, and steered clear of him. It provides a terrible Christian witness.


                      Originally posted by Apologiaphoenix View Post
                      What is inconsistent about it?
                      Jesus' teachings throughout the gospels consistently rejects the ritual purity requirements of the law and emphasise helping those in need as being all-important. This passage with its emphasis on adherence to even the smallest parts of the law runs pretty squarely contrary to that theme.

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Originally posted by Starlight View Post
                        When I saw JPH was the final poster in this thread, I predicted two things..
                        1) Starscream running away with his buttocks in flames.

                        2) Starscream playing the usual Victim Scheme he's had in practice for over 200 million years.

                        It's a fine excuse to ignore the weaknesses in his pitiable "arguments" he got out of the gumball machine.


                        econsistently rejects the ritual purity requirements of the law and emphasise helping those in need as being all-important. This passage with its emphasis on adherence to even the smallest parts of the law runs pretty squarely contrary to that theme.
                        And as shown, Starscream's fanciful notion that some such "theme" exists is a figment of his imagination caused by his profound ignorance of covenantal law and the principles of honor. The Jesus Seminar was slapped hard for being ignorant of such things, and the tradition continues.

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          Originally posted by Starlight View Post


                          Jesus' teachings throughout the gospels consistently rejects the ritual purity requirements of the law and emphasise helping those in need as being all-important. This passage with its emphasis on adherence to even the smallest parts of the law runs pretty squarely contrary to that theme.
                          No they don't. When he cleanses a leper, He instructs the leper to go show himself to the priests. Jesus doesn't tell others to do things that violate ritual purity, but seeing as He is YHWH in the flesh, He can transfer purity.

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            Originally posted by jpholding View Post
                            covenantal law and the principles of honor.
                            You seem to like to use these phrases in a very vague way in your apologetics as if they were some sort of catch-all apologetic excuse that could answer almost any concern. They aren't. Your severe misuse of these makes it pretty clear you don't understand those concepts and haven't put the time you should into studying them that you should. Which is unfortunate because understanding the social-historical context of the bible and the honor-shame society of the time is pretty critical to understanding the biblical texts accurately. And the fact that you apparently think you know what they are, when you clearly don't, is probably impeding your further learning.

                            If you want to improve your understanding of these ideas, there's a bunch of decent stuff by Malina & Pilch & Rohrbaugh together and separately which can give you a firm grasp of the basics of NT culture, or frankly anything titled The New Testament in it's cultural context or similar. With regard to ideas about covenantal law, there are enough different views among scholars that it's hard to recommend any particular thing, but maybe reading Sanders' Paul and Palestinian Judaism, and VanLandingham's Judgment & Justification In Early Judaism And The Apostle Paul, would together introduce you to a couple of different viewpoints.

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              Originally posted by Apologiaphoenix View Post
                              but seeing as He is YHWH in the flesh
                              I find it interesting that the gospels are very consistent with regard to their reports of how the general public of the time saw Jesus:

                              Matt 21:11 The crowds were saying, “This is the prophet Jesus from Nazareth in Galilee.”

                              Matt 21:46 They wanted to arrest him, but they feared the crowds, because they regarded him as a prophet.

                              Mark 6:14-15 Some were saying, “John the baptizer has been raised from the dead; and for this reason these powers are at work in him.” But others said, “It is Elijah.” And others said, “It is a prophet, like one of the prophets of old.”

                              Luke 7:16 and they glorified God, saying, “A great prophet has risen among us!”

                              Luke 9:19 “Who do the crowds say that I am?” They answered, “John the Baptist; but others, Elijah; and still others, that one of the ancient prophets has arisen.”

                              Luke 24:19 "Jesus of Nazareth, who was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people"

                              John 6:14 When the people saw the sign that he had done, they began to say, “This is indeed the prophet who is to come into the world.”

                              John 7:40 some in the crowd said, “This is really the prophet.”

                              John 9:17 So they said again to the blind man, “What do you say about him? It was your eyes he opened.” He said, “He is a prophet.”

                              There are plenty more passages to the same effect. The gospels are clear that the way the general public understood Jesus, including many he interacted with directly (e.g. healed), was in the traditional Jewish category of "prophet". Possibly a resurrection/reincarnation of a previous specific prophet.

                              Jesus own public statements don't seem to reject this public understanding of himself as a prophet, and at times he reaffirms it pretty explicitly:

                              Luke 13:33 Yet today, tomorrow, and the next day I must be on my way, because it is impossible for a prophet to be killed outside of Jerusalem.

                              Mat 13:57 / Luke 4:24 / John 4:44 Jesus said to them, “Prophets are not without honor except in their own country and in their own house."


                              I think it's fair to say that if the gospel writers were wanting to project their own theology back onto Jesus, the easiest way for them to do that would be in their narration sections where they are outright giving their own theology (e.g. John 1:1), and the second-easiest would be to record Jesus saying things in private to the disciples (e.g. Matt 16:16,20) because nobody could fact-check secret/private teachings (and indeed, a number of writings about private/secret teachings of Jesus seem to have appeared in the 2nd century). Whereas, insofar as there were people around who had heard Jesus themselves or knew the stories about Jesus' preaching, it would be harder for the gospel writers to take liberties with misrepresenting the public's understanding of Jesus and with the public teachings of Jesus. It seems pretty clear that in his lifetime Jesus was understood by the public to be a prophet - all the gospels attest to this, and that later some of his followers would convince themselves that he was something more than a prophet, and that perhaps (or perhaps not) he had given hints of this to a chosen few in some private teachings not known to the general populace (and I would say we can see a bit of a progression over time with regard to exactly what 'more than' a prophet actually entailed).

                              But the gospels attest that the public's understanding of Jesus was as a prophet. So I think you're doing a bit of disservice to the text in this thread when you try and reinterpret the Sermon on the Mount through your own God-Incarnate theology and point to things like speaking with authority as proof of that God-Incarnate theology. The gospels are clear that those who heard him immediately thought "prophet". And I'll grant you your point that this was probably because he taught with authority unlike the standard teachers of the law, who didn't purport to be prophets or to be giving new teachings from God like prophets were understood to do.
                              Last edited by Starlight; 06-05-2020, 03:35 AM.

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